The Frederick Ferris Thompson Memorial Library was renovated again. The north and south courts, formed by wings added in 1918, were made into stack areas with access from each floor. 

Pablo Picasso's "Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier)" (1910) was among the 19 20th century paintings from the collection of Governor Nelson Rockefeller displayed in Taylor Hall.   In an appreciation of the painting in The Miscellany News, Geraldine Dunphy '60 observed, "Without the 'Girl with a Mandolin,' Picasso's [later] portraits of Dora Maar, for example...are inconceivable. The richer and more complex image of synthetic cubism with its more relaxed arrangement of forms, its curvilinear elements and its powerful enrichment of color is the product of the new pictorial concept first explored by analytical cubism"

The paintings on display included examples of the Fauves and early Cubists and were chosen for the advanced course in modern painting.

In a letter to the editor of The Miscellany News, President Blanding explained the college's decision to continue to offer students low-interest loans under the National Defense Education Act of 1958 despite its "offensive" requirements of a loyalty oath and non-communist affidavit.  Noting that several institutions, including Swarthmore, Bryn Mawr, Haverford, Harvard, Yale and Oberlin, had either refused to offer the loans or withdrawn from the program, she quoted a faculty resolution passed the previous June stating that the "faculty deplores the provision in the...act requiring a disclaimer affidavit and joins with other colleges and universities in seeking to repeal the provision."  Assuring students who "preferred not to accept a federal loan under these conditions" that they might apply for a loan from the college, she said that Vassar's board of trustees "felt that the signing of the oath and the disclaimer were matters of individual conscience and that the college should protest the requirement but should not deny the loans to students."

"If the offensive provisions are not rescinded," the president declared, "the matter will be re-opened.  I am glad that our faculty and student body are ready to protest what seems to them objectionable in public life.  I am glad, too, that our Board of Trustees takes into consideration no only the needs of individual students but the right of students to make their own independent decisions."  On March 21, 1960, President Blanding notified head of the Student Loan Section of the Office of Education that the executive committee of the board of trustees had voted to withdraw Vassar from the loan program as of June 30.

In 1959, Senator John F. Kennedy introduced a bill to eliminate the loyalty oath and the non-communist affidavit from the education act, and on October 16, 1962, President Kennedy signed the bill removing the non-communist affidavit from the defense education act.  In the interim, 153 colleges and universities had withdrawn from the law's loan program.

Under the auspices of the department of physical education, the José Limón Dance Company presented a master class and a concert featuring four pieces set to the music of Vivaldi, Pergolesi, Purcell and contemporary American composer Norman Lloyd.  "This is not easy dancing to watch," Imogene Howe '60 wrote in The Miscellany News.  "It makes heavy demands upon the viewer's concentration.  He does not know what is going to happen next in this choreography; surprise follows surprise."

Refused service at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, NC, four African American students started a sit-in, triggering a season of non-violent student sit-ins in the South.   Six months later, the four students were served lunch at the same Woolworth’s lunch counter.

"Uncle Fred's Nose," the addition to the Main Building given by trustee Frederick Ferris Thompson and erected in 1893 for a library, was demolished by the Campbell Building Company, as part of the plan for restoring Main Building’s original façade. The Class of 1960 took part in a brief ceremony, at which the first blow to the venerable eyesore was struck by President Blanding. Mrs. Martha Wyman, '18, and Professor C. Gordon Post impersonated Lady Principal Georgia Kendrick and "Uncle Fred" Thompson. 

Twenty-five Vassar students were among representatives from many Northeastern colleges and universities attending a colloquium, called the Challenge, at Yale. Speakers included Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater; Sarah Lawrence College President Emeritus Harold Taylor; A. Philip Randolph, international president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Thurgood Marshall, director-counsel of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the topic was civil rights.

Students who attended the civil rights symposium at Yale University the previous weekend held a civil rights rally at which Herbert Hill, labor secretary of the NAACP, and Democratic Socialist activist Paul DuBrul spoke.  About 150 of the college’s 1,400 students attended.

Over 100 students picketed the Woolworth’s store on Main Street, Poughkeepsie, to protest against lunch counter segregation in the chain’s southern stores.  Apparently by coincidence, simultaneous protests were staged by Smith College and Bennington College students at Woolworth stores in Northampton, MA, and in Bennington, VT.

Investigative reporter McCandlish Phillips put these incidents in context on March 20 in The New York Times:

“Informal organizations have sprung up in the last ten days at a score of colleges and universities, including some of the nation’s foremost institutions.  Many of these have gone into action within forty-eight hours.

“There is a quality of invention to their work.  The students lack means and experience. They admit to uncertainty about what they can do.

“But money is being raised, meetings are being held and picket lines are forming in sympathy with Negroes who have protested segregation at chain-store lunch counters in the South.

“The present campus generation has been accused of self-concern and a pallid indifference to social or political questions.  This issue appears to have aroused it as have few others.”

Vassar senior Marian Gray ’60 told Phillips that a meeting late in the first evening of the gathering at Yale with Democratic Socialist activist Paul DuBrul and Yale Law School alumnus Allard Lowenstein “stimulated us most in deciding to do something on our own campus about civil rights.”

“‘Mr. Lowenstein arrived from Alabama that night,’ Miss Gray said.  ‘He and Mr. DuBrul explained the issues and urged students to return to their college communities and organize demonstrations and protests.  They urged us to educate our home communities on the problems facing Southern Negroes….’"

Gray then told Phillips about the meeting she and her group arranged on campus with Herbert Hill and Paul DuBrul and about the protest the following evening, the late shopping night in Poughkeepsie:

“‘We announced that we intended to picket Woolworth’s and we got practically the entire audience,’ Miss Gray said.

“Meetings were held in all eight dormitories Wednesday night.

“Late Thursday afternoon about 100 girls rode downtown and carried signs outside the store: ‘Don’t Buy From Woolworth—It Discriminates in the South.’

“‘For the most part the reaction was one of indifference,’ Miss Gray said.  ‘There was a little open antagonism and some curiosity.  We do not feel we had any effect on the business of the store.  We did not really expect to, but we had hoped that we might.’

“Miss Gray, a Negro, said that the picketing was ‘about the most extreme thing we could have done.  There have been no pickets at Vassar in the last twenty years.  We did not know how to go about it, we did not know what our legal rights were, we did not know how the administration would react and we had to tell the girls that we could not offer them protection of any kind.’

“‘Having told them the risk we did not lose a single girl who had signed up for the demonstration,’ she said….

“Girls from Miami, Fla., Durham, N. C., and Frankfort, Ky., took part in the Vassar demonstration.

“A meeting will be held Wednesday night to decide ‘what other action might be effective here,’ Miss Gray said.”     The New York Times

Dr. Marian Gray Secundy '60, the first African American to serve on the Vassar board of trustees (1965-1971) and a founding board member of Triple A VC (African American Alumnae/i of Vassar College), was a professor and the director of the Program in Clinical Ethics at Howard University.  Her brother, former Pennsylvania Congressman William H. Gray III, served for many years as president of the United Negro College Fund.  He was Vassar' s commencement speaker in 1988.

Visiting Lecturer in Drama Norris Houghton, co-founder of New York's Phoenix Theatre, and the Vassar Experimental Theatre used the Living Newspaper technique developed by the theatre's founder Hallie Flanagan during her directorship of the Federal Theatre Project to produce "Standing Room Only," a study of the global overpopulation. The Living Theatre format, which Flanagan based on her study of Russian revolutionary theater, combined journalistic research and data on a public issue with broadly drawn characters representing segments of the public or public figures, mixed media, offstage commentary and dramatic stage effects to, in her words, "dramatize a new struggle – the search of the average American today for knowledge about his country and his world; to dramatize his struggle to turn the great natural and economic forces of our time toward a better life for more people." The tecnique learned, she said, "from the chorus, the camera, the cartoon." 

America's first Living Theatre in at least a decade, Houghton's production involved a cast of some 80 students, faculty, Poughkeepsie residents and professional actors and was the result of extensive research in the first semester by an "editorial board" of students in Drama 270-370 for a script that was being revised up until the show's dress rehearsal.  "This illustrates," Houghton told Mary Walther '61 for an article in The Miscellany News, "the most important tendency in theatre today, that is, it brings back the rapport between audience and actors, and breaks through the barrier set up by the restrictions of realistic drama."

"With its production of "Standing Room Only" last week, Mary Davis '60 wrote in The Miscellany News, "the Experimental Theatre justified its right to the title of 'Experimental.'  Using film clips, a narrator (Richard Kronold [a professional actor]), a 'representative' of the audience, Jane Q. Public (Nancy Gannett ['60]), and a large cast including many non-actors, Experimental Theatre not only presented the facts of the problem of the population explosion but took a controversial stand on it by advocating contraception as the quickest and simplest solution.  And in its exciting, if not completely successful, exposition of the problem, Experimental Theatre illuminated the possibilities for the theatre inherent in the living newspaper form as well as the problems it may present.  For if [the play's] more successful aspects cause one to wish that the living newspaper form were more used in the West than it has been, it also offers an explanation for its continued use and success to educate and propagandize among illiterates in Communist China."     Laura Browder, Rousing the Nation: Radical Culture in Depression America, The Miscellany News

Six hundred students signed a petition to the trustees requesting that Vassar withdraw from the National Defense Student Loan Program as a protest against its requirement that students submit a affidavit disclaiming communist ties.  The trustees responded that Vassar would withdraw from the program as of June 30, 1960, unless the disclaimer clause was deleted by that time.  The requirement was not deleted, and Vassar withdrew.  

In 1959, Senator John F. Kennedy had introduced a bill to eliminate the loyalty oath and the non-communist affidavit from the education act, and on October 16, 1962, President Kennedy signed the bill removing the non-communist affidavit from the defense education act.  In the interim, 153 colleges and universities had withdrawn from the federal loan program.

Students from ten academic departments presented papers at "East and West," an intramural symposium held under the auspices of the department of history that focussed on the 15th century Council of Ferarra-Florence, the last great attempt to unite the separated Christian churches of East and West.  Carole Lomax '61, Elizabeth Clark '60, Irene Stocksieker '62 and Lynda Wallace '61 delivered papers on Pope Eugenius IV and the Greeks, the "Greek schism" known as Filioque or the procession of the holy spirit, Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople and Mark of Ephesus, the dissenting Archbishop, respectively.  Hettie Albo '61 spoke on the council's unofficial translator, Ambrogio Traverari, showing how he became in influential Latin supporter of the Union; Susan Perkins '61 described Isidore, Metropolitan of Kiev, another supporter of the Union, whose political travails and imprisonment upon his return to Russia became "a catalyst to the tradition of Moscow as the third Rome"; and Susan Merritt '61, according to Sherrell Bingham '62, Ann Friedberg '62 and Margery Henderson '62, writing in The Miscellany News, "gave the amusing impression of the anonymous Russian who accompanied Isadore as an illustratioin of the basic misconceptions and ignorance of the East and West about each other."

Having established the purposes and some of the personae of the Council, the symposium turned to its effects.  Lydia Vecchi '62 discussed the influence on the Council and particularly on Cosimo de Medici, whom he met there, of the Neoplatonic Greek philosopher Georgius Gemistus—known as Plethon—which resulted in de Medici's founding of the Platonic Academy in Florence. Margery Henderson's paper introduced Plethon's disciple Basilios Bessarion who, passionately engaged in the Council's attempt at union between the Eastern and Western churchs, as a Cardinal in Rome commissioned the transmission and translation of Greek manuscripts into Latin, thus fostering humanistic study of Greek scholarship in Western Europe.  Margot Lancastle '61 interpreted a panel in Ghiberti's "Gate of Paradise" in light of the approaching Council, and Nancy Dow '62 used works by Fra Angelico, Benozzo Gozzoli and Piero della Francesca to demonstrate the effect of Eastern pageantry on Italian art.  Concluding this session, Anne McPherson '62 saw the failed attempt in the 1460s by Pope Pius II to liberate the Eastern church from the Turks as the final attempt for interrelation and aid.

The symposium's keynote speaker, Professor Donald F. Lach from the University of Chicago, the preeminent scholar of Eastern influences on Western history and culture, presented what the students writing in The Miscellany News termed "a penetrating and meaningful survey of 'Asia in the Eyes of Europe'" on the evening of the symposium's first day.  Commenting on politics, economics, religion, philosophy and the arts, Professor Lach in "a concise and illuminating manner," they said, "emphasized how the West reached the East, how the purpose of the European contact often coincided with a salient interest in Western society, how the West interpreted the knowledge of the East in the light of its own biases and how this knowledge of the Orient contributed to Western culture."

On the following morning the symposium's final session, "The Missionary as Historian of China," focused on one aspect of Professor Lach's impressive survey in three historical periods.  "Each of the papers," said The Misc., "considered its period and group of missionaries as a whole, then concentrated on an individual historian to get at his particular view-point and the causes and effects of it."  Gail Ross '60 discussed "The Missionary Friars of the Mongol Period, 13-14th Century," with particualr attention to the 13th century missionary, explorer and envoy William of Rubruck and to Giovanni de' Marignolli—known as John of Marignola—a 14th century Florentine traveller and envoy.  The paper of Nada Beth Ellend '61, "A Jesuit of the 17th Century: Matteo Ricci," the influence of the court diaries of the Italian missionary, cartographer and mathematician—one of the first Westerners to learn to write and speak the Chinese language and the composer of the first Chinese map of the world—on subsequent Western understanding of Chinese culture and governance.  In the symposium's concluding paper, Linnea Bush '62 discussed "Protestant Missionaries in the 19th Century."

Pictorial exhibits accompanied the symposium, and eight students from the music department gave the American premiére of Lamentatio sanctae matris ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae (The Lament of the Holy Mother Church of Constantinople), a motet by the 15th century composer, Guillaume Dufay.

The Hon. Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of the State of New York, and father of Mary Rockefeller '60, spoke on "Survival in a Nuclear Attack."  Asked to speak by a group of concerned students, Rockefeller spoke about nuclear fall-out and the need for a program to promote private construction of shelters to protect families in case of a nuclear attack.

Rockefeller's plan to encourage voluntary construction of nuclear fall-out shelters was roundly mocked and defeated in the New York Legislature, and he warned his Vassar audience that, given the Soviet nuclear power, “at some point the American people are going to question…whether Berlin is worth the risk to us as a people who are exposed to such an attack and have no defense against it and no place to go.”     The New York Times, The Miscellany News

Speaking to about 200 fathers of sophomores at the 6th annual Sophomore Father’s Weekend, Robert E. Nixon, M.D. the college’s resident psychiatrist, reported that nearly 15 percent of the student body consulted him each year.  Most of these students, he said, are emotionally healthy and seek from him “instruction in self-knowledge.”  Students “need and expect to learn the facts of their own human selves as well as to learn the facts of this world, past and present”

Dr. Nixon declared that “the truly contemporary liberal arts college strives to teach the student not only what she needs to know about the world but what she demands to know about herself.”

The Right Reverend Johannes Lilje, Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Hannover, Germany, and president of the Lutheran World Federation, preached on "The Good Shepherd."  Convicted by the Nazi government in 1944 of high treason for expressing his religious convictions and imprisoned under sentence of death until his liberation by American troops the following year, Bishop Lilje said that since their experience with the Third Reich, German Christians have been struggling anew with the question of their right—or duty—to resist tyranny.    The Miscellany News

Margaret Leech ’15 won her second Pulitzer Prize in History for In the Days of McKinley (1959), a recreation—as was her Reveille in Washington (1941)—of a precisely defined period in national history. “Seldom,” The San Francisco Chronicle said of the book,  “has 19th Century America been recaptured and evoked bore successfully or more skillfully….  It is rare indeed to find a work of such solid and permanent historical value which is executed with such literary skill.”  

Leech, whose book on McKinley also won the prestigious Bancroft Prize, was the widow of Ralph Pulitzer, the son of the founder of the Pulitzer Prizes.

"The story," Irish novelist and visiting professor Elizabeth Bowen told an audience in the Chapel, "is the master of the writer; the glory of the writer is that he serves the story, and his reward for his work is doing that work well."  The author of eight novels, including The House in Paris (1935), The Death of the Heart (1938), The Heat of the Day, (1949) and A World of Love (1955), numerous short stories and nonfiction works, including Bowen's Court (1942), Why Do I Write?: An Exchange of Views between Elizabeth Bowen, Graham Greene and V. S. Pritchett (1948) and A Time in Rome (1960), she asserted, said Mary Davis '60 in The Miscellany News, that "part of the power of the story...is over the author himself.  As much as the writer begins with a conscious intention, he is likely to release, by his very comtemplation of an imagined scene, a great mass of imaginative material that he did not expect.  This unexpected material, which Miss Bowen called 'the strange little growth...which is the stuff of the story,' does not make the writer happy, or satisfy his egotism."

Visiting professor in the English department for the second semester, Bowen wrote a few months later about the experience. “How much,” she said, “goes on in these buildings!—these classrooms and halls and theatres, galleries, music rooms and laboratories!  The campus is not a cloister.  I have seen no attempts to shield it from the winds of reality—harsh as they sometimes blow.  Late evening lectures on world developments, prevailing problems and current topics are thronged; groups for debates and discussions flourish, with ever-increasing membership.  These students like their brothers and sisters elsewhere, are seeking a synthesis….”     Glamour, August, 1960 

“The college is prepared to assist students who marry during their undergraduate careers in making appropriate plans for continuing their education….  The college requires any student who wishes to be married while she is enrolled at Vassar to confer with the Warden in advance to secure approval of her plans.”   Vassar College Bulletin

“Continuing your education,” former chair of the board of trustees Morris Hadley told the 267 graduates in the Class of 1960, “is not just a pious principle, it is a hard fact of life.  You can’t afford to let up on the process of learning.”  The graduates also heard briefly from New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, the father of their classmate, Mary.  “The greatest source of confidence and inspiration we can have in the future of freedom and in the dignity of the individual,” he told the audience of 2,000, “is the character and caliber of the young people of today.”

Frederica Pisek Barach ’25, chairman of the board of trustees, announced that the graduates and their parents made gifts to the college totaling $19,111.     The New York Times

President Blanding accepted the largest single class gift, $200,589 from the Class of 1910, at alumnae weekend.  The total alumnae giving came to $804,613, of which $615,201 was unrestricted.     The New York Times

At the mid-point of the ten-year Twenty-Five Million Dollar Development Program, established by the trustees in 1955 and announced in 1957, the total received to date was $13,824,235.  The program's goals were $16.5 million for the educational program, with emphasis on faculty salaries and scholarships, and the remainder for improvements to the physical plant.

In November 1964, President Alan Simpson announced that the goal had been reached, nine month before the program's deadline.  Since the program’s inception faculty salaries had been substantially improved, a new residence hall and a modern language center built and significant improvements made to Main Building, the Library and the Art Gallery.

With support from the National Science Foundation and the New York State Education Department and taught by Vassar faculty, two summer programs, in earth science and modern languages, were held on campus for junior high and high school teachers.  The earth science program acquainted junior high and high school teachers with the latest advances in knowledge and techniques and granted certificates for six hours of academic credit to the participants.  The language programs, requiring full-time residency of their participants, were in Russian and French.  All participants in the earth science program received stipends as did New York State teachers in the modern language programs.

President Blanding announced that gifts to Vassar College during the fiscal year 1959/60 set a new record, with a total of $4,245,000.   This amount exceeded the previous record year, 1957-58, by more than a half million dollars. The alumnae provided $2,927,375 in bequests and $750,825 through the annual Alumnae Fund. 

College opened in the midst of Hurricane Donna, the most powerful storm of the 1960 hurricane season, which hit Long Island on September 12.  One thousand four hundred and seventy-one students were enrolled from 46 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and 26 foreign countries, including Nigeria, the world’s newest nation.  Over one-forth—28.27 percent—of the 437 members of the Class of '64 were from New York State, and 120 of the new students—27.45 percent—came from Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio. In all, the class represented 40 American states and Argentina, England, Japan, Switzerland, Colombia, India, Turkey, Sweden, Germany, Hong Kong, Cuba, Brazil, Tunisia, Canada and Peru. Fifty-five percent of the freshmen came from public schools, 42 percent from private schools and three percent had attended both types of school.

The full-time faculty numbered 190: 83 men and 107 women.  Full professors earned between $8,500 and $13,000; associate professors between $7,500 and $9,000; assistant professors between $6,600 and $7,500 and instructors between $5,000 and $6,500.     The Magnificent Enterprise, The Miscellany News

Plans for Vassar’s centennial year were announced at Fall Convocation, the first event on Vassar’s centennial calendar.  Dean Emeritus C. Mildred Thompson '03 spoke on "Vassar: Its Tradition and Its Future."

Soprano Eileen Farrell, in a centennial event, gave the ninth Barbara Woods Morgan Memorial Concert in the Students' Building.  Miss Farrell's program included classical works by Ludwig von Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Carl Maria von Weber, Claude Debussy and Francis Poulenc. She concluded the recital with five contemporary works: "The Lamb," by Clifford Shaw, "Linstead Market," by Arthur Benjamin, "Where is Dis Road A-leading Me To," by Harold Arlen and "The Winds" and "I Thank You, God, For Most This Amazing Day," by Celius Dougherty.  The text for the last song was by E. E. Cummings.  

The Barbara Woods Morgan Memorial Fund was established by the Class of 1935 and other friends of Barbara Woods Morgan '35, who died on December 6, 1936, in recognition of her deep interest in music.  The first memorial concert took place on March 6, 1938.

Eileen Farell made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera on December 6, 1960.

Irish playwright Brendan Behan talked informally under the auspices of the drama department, addressing his audience as "faculty members, madonnas and escorts." "Puffing mightily on an aromatic cigar," Diana Fries '61 observed in The Miscellany News, "Mr. Behan rambled on about Vassar girls, chorus girls, Irish orphanages, Americans abroad....  Much of his discussion consisted of satirical reminiscences of his experiences in theaters all over the world.  In these he played the various roles, from a paunchy American producer to a slightly drunk Dublin actor attempting the part of a French emperor.  To see Behan's mobile hound dog face assume these characters with the flick of an eyebrow and the slope of a shoulder was an experience that would have aroused even the most peevish of audiences to laughter."

Behan's first play, The Quare Fellow (1954), played in New York in 1958, and The Hostage (1958) had just moved to Broadway at the time of his visit to Vassar.

The New York Times noted a centennial event involving community leaders in Poughkeepsie and Dutchess County.  President Blanding invited 114 representatives of agricultural, educational, governmental and other enterprises that aided Vassar students and faculty during the 14 years of the field work program’s existence to visit the campus on two days during the week.  She discussed the history and development of the college and the campus with the visitors before they joined students to attend classes, tour the campus and lunch in the college’s residence halls. 

Republican State Assemblyman R. Watson Pomeroy and Williams College Professor of Political Science James MacGregor Burns spoke on campus supporting, respectively, Richard Nixon and John Kennedy in the upcoming presidential election.  The Young Republicans sponsored  the six-term representative's afternoon address, "How the Educated Voter Approaches the Issues of the 1960 Campaign." In the evening Professor Burns's sponsors were the Young Democrats and Students for Kennedy and Johnson. Speaking on "Kennedy and the 1960's," the author of John Kennedy: A Political Profile (1960), perceiving, as Barbara Rosof '62 observed in The Miscellany News, "that the audience was not entirely pro-Kennedy...divided his lecture into three sections to appeal to the Stevensonian liberals, partisan Democrats and Independents to vote for Kennedy."

Professor of English Doris Russell, chair of the faculty committee for the college's centennial, and faculty colleagues revealed the centennial's major event at an assembly in the Chapel.  An article in The Miscellany News urged "every student..to attend the assembly to learn the essential and rewarding part she can play in the program."  "The highlghts on the calendar," Professor Russell said, "are events dependent upon student interest and participation."

Joan Gordon of the sociology department and chemist Edward Linner spoke about student involvement in the Conference on the Natural and Social Sciences, scheduled for the weekend of November 5—the same weekend, The Miscellany News noted, as Junior Party, a major social event of the year.  Anita Zorzoli of the physiology department discussed the much anticipated participation later that month of a team from Vassar in the "G.E. College Bowl" television program.  Professor Zorzoli coached the five-member team: Eleanor Green '61, Joan Oxman '61, Perre MacFarland '62, Dana Dowling '63 and Marina Darrow '63.

The major mid-winter event was to be the Festival of the Mid-Nineteenth Century being planned by Professor Arthur Satz from the music department and Elizabeth Daniels from the English department.  The focus of the festival's lectures, discussions and associated events was the two decades before and after the founding of the college in 1861.  

Professor Dean Mace from the English department discussed the week-long International Conference scheduled for March 19-24, 1961, which would convene participants from around the world to "consider common problems and values of their divergent cultures."  Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt would welcome the delegates to the conference, which was supported by a $5,000 grant from the Hazen Foundation.  "Seldom at any college," Mr. Mace told the assembled students, "can there be for an occasion so large and distinguished a collection of contemporary leaders drawn from over the surface of the whole earth...challenging us to consider with all of our resources of intellect and experience one of the major questions of our time."

The following week,an editoria in The Miscellany Newsl, "Centennial Disenchantment," expressed the editors' concern that "after five years of elaborate planning—with careful attention given to the special pink of the Vassar rose—the Centennial Committee has made one oversight in their plans—they have forgotten the student body."  While praising the scope and importance of the several conferences, the editorial cited the lack of student participation in their planning and such details as the scheduling of the International Conference during the spring vacation, when it "will be missed by a good part of the student body" and the diversion for the major conferences (with the exception of the International Conference) of lecture funds from "independent lectures that usually supplement our academic work."

In response the planning committees pledged to work with students wishing to contribute to the centennial events and the trustees approved additional funding and offered free room and board during the spring vacation for students wishing to attend the March conference.

"Vassar Backs Jack," said The Miscellany News, a few days after the predominately Democratic faculty support for John Kennedy overcame by five votes the slight edge given Richard Nixon by students and staff in the campus-wide mock election. Some 1,100 votes were cast in the November 3 poll that found the faculty supporting the Massachesetts senator 100 to 40, the students backing the Republican candidate 560 to 534 and the staff choosing him 81 to 52.

Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower carried the Vassar campus vote by a better than two-to-one margin in 1952 and by nearly that difference in 1956.    The Miscellany News

“Science and Society,” a conference on the natural and social sciences, was held as part of the centennial celebration. The speakers included: Bentley Glass, professor of biology at Johns Hopkins University, who spoke on “The Growing Political Role of the Academic Scientist;” Yale University Professor of Biophysics Ernest C. Pollard, who discussed “The Advance of Physical Science into the Biological and Social Sciences;” Czech-American analytic philosopher of science Ernest Nagel, John Dewey Professor of Natural and Social Sciences at Columbia, who explored “Certainty and Doubt in the Natural and Social Sciences” and Donald W. Taylor, professor of psychology at Yale University, whose topic was "Creative Thinking among Scientists."

Professor Nagel, according to The Miscellany News, "said the certainty of natural and social sciences often differ from reality: laws, in natural science, are formulated in ideal cases which are deceptively precise," whereas in social sciences, "laws descrivbe irregularities.  The tendency is not to formulate generalizations in terms of ideal cases...but in terms of actual observations.  Because of these basic differences between the two sciences sharp comparison is 'not playing the game fairly.'"

Noting scientists' historic desire  for "political immunity," Professor Glass said that "with the advent of World War II...science became forever linked to government....Certainly, the dangers of nuclear fallout have necessitated international conferences where scientists and diplomats alike can discuss the problems of arms control and nuclear testing." 

Senator John F. Kennedy was elected President of the United States, defeating Vice President Richard Nixon by some 113,000 votes out of nearly 70 million cast.

The Collegium Musicum of the University of Illinois, directed by George Hunter, gave a centennial program of 13th- through17th-century music.  The ensemble included Jantina Noorman, mezzo-soprano and portative organ; Uni Thomas, vielle and rebec; James Bailey, tenor and percussion; Robert Smith, recorders and krummhorn and George Hunter, lute and viola da gamba. 

Writing in The Miscellany News, Professor of Music Carl Parrish praised the five performers' "skill and expressiveness."  "The program," he said, "was an impressive demonstration of the variety and richness of the repertory of pre-Baroque music, and a convincing testimony of the fact that, when performed with the musical insight and warmth of feeling that is brought to it in performances such as this, such music is anything but archaic or remote in feeling."

Competing for the first time in the televised "GE College Bowl," a Vassar team defeated four-time winner Vanderbilt University. Originally a popular radio program, the College Bowl—"The Varsity Sport of the Mind"—was broadcast between October 1953 and December 1955. Two four-person teams competed in each 30-minute program, answering questions on topics ranging from literature, history and philosophy to science, the arts and religion. Revived for televison in 1959 by the General Electric Company, the games appeared on Saturdays and Sundays through June of 1970. The competition resumed in 1977 under the sponsorship of the Association of College Unions International (ACUI), continuing until 2008.

The college accepted an invitation to participate in the competition in May 1960, and, said The Miscellany News, "under the auspices of the Intra-Mural Committee of the Centennial, has already laid the ground work for securing next fall an outstanding group of students for the team." After a series of written and oral tests, the four members of the Vassar team, Marina Dorrow '63, Dana Downing '63, Perre McFarland '62 and Joan Oxman '61, were selected from a field of 16 by a student-faculty committee chaired by Associate Professor of Biology Anita Zorzoli, who served as their coach.

The careful preparation for the contest was upset when, in anticipation of a strike by the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA), the event was filmed on November 13,  a week before the live contest was originally to be aired. An anonymous account of the day by one or more of the team members appeared, under the headline "Vassar Versus Vanderbilt, Venimus,Vidimus, Vicimus," in The Miscellany News for November 16.  "Vanderbilt, victorious in four previous games, determined to take home the silver cup that is presented to five-time winners.... Vassar, competing a week earlier than we'd expected, with only two weeks of intensive practice sessions.  Four exceedingly determined young men, who refused to believe that 'mere girls' would stand in their way.  Four exceedingly worried young women, who doubted their ability to stop such determined opponents."

After two defeats in practice sessions, the Vassar team won a "dress rehearsal" held an hour before the live competition, filmed by kinescope, began. Behind at half-time, the Vassar team rallied in the second half, only to see their opponents gaining as the clock ran down. "We watched the clock anxiously, wondering whether they could catch up...before time ran out.  But the score was still in our favor: Vassar 200, Vanderbilt 155 when the final bell rang.... When the cameras had stopped we stood on the stage and sang 'Gaudeamus Igitur'; and voices in the audience joined in."

The following week Vassar lost to Boston University. The team donated their prizes, $ 2,000, to the scholarship fund. Vassar teams competed in three subsequent College Bowl national championship: tied with eight other teams for last place in 1981; finishing in fourth place in 1982; and tied with Princeton for third place in 1984.     The Miscellany News 

In recognition of the centenary of the college and of the birth of Anton Chekhov, the Vassar Experimental Theater presented The Cherry Orchard. The production honored Professor Catherine Wolkonsky, chairman of the department of Russian from 1946 until 1961, who retired in June. 

Delivering the annual Martin Crego lecture, Harvard economist John Kenneth Galbraith put aside his announced topic, "Modern Industrialism, East and West," to discuss both "vulgar" and "worthy" responses to his book, The Affluent Society (1958). Explaining, according to Margaret Rose '61 and Pam Rymer '61, writing in The Miscellany News, that traditional economic problems were laregly absent from mid-century America, Galbraith identified instead the "lack of an urgent need to produce; that is, to produce can no longer be the sole aim because the demand for the products is not increasing so fast as the growth rate. Already, we are almost satiated with material goods. The pressure caused by this mis-balance in the economy is felt by the private sector because it is requested to carry public burdens which it cannot and should not assume. Modern society should apply itself to correcting the imbalance of private wealth and public need, not by producing more, but by creating a means for the public financing of its needs."

Galbraith dismissed "vulgar" critics of this position, such as the "'quaint sage of Arizona, Mr. [Senator Barry] Goldwater,' whose theories are based 'on verbal aptitude rather than thought'" and the "'one time paragon of the New Deal,'" Raymond Moser, a key member of Franklin Roosevelt's "brain trust" who was now a radical conservative. But he took seriously other criticism of, as the student reviewers put it, "his idea that the process of want creation must be matured by a change from the simple production of goods to that of satisfying the more fundamental wants—good health, education, the qualities which sustain a strong society."

The following morning—a Saturday—Professor Galbraith met with students in a question and answer format.

The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment established in 1956 by Jean Crego '32 in honor of her father, was an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department. 

The editors of The Miscellany News came out strongly for the proposed Youth Peace Corps service program, which would send young Americans into undereloped nations of the world as teachers, social workers, doctors and technical advisors, to fight poverty, illiteracy and disease.  An alumna of the 1930s wrote a classmate: “Can it be that here at last is that something which will ‘engage’ this generation as settlements and suffrage moved Mother’s and ‘one third of a nation’ ours!”     MS letter

The Christmas concert was given in the Chapel by the Vassar College Choir and the Cadet Glee Club of the United States Military Academy. After a program of works by Gustav Holst, Michael Praetorius, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and George Frederic Handel and others by, first, the Vassar Choir and then the Cadet Glee Club, Professor of Music Donald Pearson conducted instrumentalists and the joined choral groups in a performance of the Magnificat in C by Johann Pachelbel.

In recognition of the centennial, Connecticut social activist Dr. Emily M. Pierson ’07 gave the college “The Controversial Book Shelf,” a collection of material concerning controversial contemporary issues.  An ardent suffragist and, after the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920, a progressive socialist, Dr. Pierson commented at the time of the gift, “I don’t think I would bother with this gift except that I have noticed that the mountain of ignorance and prejudice over which the world must struggle year by year is a grave menace to peace, even to the very existence of the world.”

The book shelf, a collection of books and pamphlets acquired over the years by Dr. Pierson and housed in the basement of Rockefeller Hall, was a gesture of gratitude, Dr. Pierson said, to another radical, Matthew Vassar. "Vassar taught me one thing," she was quoted in The Miscellany News as saying, "not to be afraid of honest investigation, wherever it might lead."

 

The New York State Board of Regents approved a proposal that the state grant $200 annually to state residents enrolled in a private or sectarian college in the state, in order to allow colleges to raise tuitions to meet their own needs without further burdening students.  This was a device to circumvent the constitutional prohibition of public funds being given to religious institutions.   President Blanding said, “I am not at all sure that this proposal to grant a subsidy which would then come to the independent college is a sound one,” given the questionable inclusion of sectarian institutions.  She continued, “I don’t like to see the long-held and traditional separation of Church and State broken down.”      The Miscellany News

 

Vassar presented “The Magnificent Enterprise: Education Opens the Door,” an exhibition of 200 photographs, engravings, lithographs, posters, and drawings illustrating 100 years of higher education for women, at the I.B.M Gallery of Arts and Sciences in New York City. Nationwide circulation was under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, and the exhibition was mounted on campus in the Aula in early May.

Vassar's centennial celebration began on "Charter Day," the day on which, 100 years earlier, the regents of the State University of New York granted a charter to Vassar Female College. An editorial in The New York Times recognized the day, saying, in part: “Vassar College is celebrating the 100th anniversary of its founding today.  There is good reason also for the nation to honor the date because Vassar was the first adequately endowed college in the United States to offer women an education equal to that generally available to men.

“This is an occasion to look backward: to review the long struggle, now all by won, to gain for women equal rights and opportunities in every field, a struggle in which Vassar and its graduates have played so conspicuous a part….

“This is good time also to look ahead: to explore the way in which education, especially that of women, can best keep pace with, and furnish leadership for, the profound changes of the future, so many of them upon us even now.

“For Vassar, the year’s events will help those who control its destiny to evaluate the college in the light of its first 100 years’ experience and to set new goals toward which the college will steer in the next 100 years.  These President Sarah Gibson Blanding has well characterized as comprising ‘the best possible education for young women in a rapidly changing world.’ May the year’s events amply serve such aims.”

In Poughkeepsie, Secretary of the College Theodore H. Erck spoke on "Vassar College and Poughkeepsie" at the January Chamber of Commerce Contact Club breakfast. At the breakfast, the chairman of the Contact Club Breakfast Committee, Paul D. Tower, presented President Blanding with the Chamber's Achievement Award, honoring Vassar for its 100 years of high standards and excellence in education. 

On campus, the 100th anniversary of the granting of the  charter was celebrated with a Charter Day party at which President Blanding and the board of trustees honored the employees and staff. President Emeritus Henry Noble MacCracken gave the Salute to Employees, and those with more than 25 years of service received citations.

 A special exhibition, "The Body Corporate," was shown in the Library. 


President Blanding accepted an invitation from Lylas Good ’61 and Joan Page ’61 to tea and a housewarming in the igloo they had carved out of the snow piles in the Main Building parking lot.  Professor of political science C. Gordon Post accompanied the president, and the group was joined later by Gwendolyn Hamilton of the music department, Jean Fay, curator of the Art Museum and Martha M. Wyman ’18, head resident of Main. "The girls," The Miscellany News  reported, "spent 14 nights digging out this colossal snow structure."

The class of 1961 celebrated Vassar’s 100th Birthday Party, hosted by Martha McChesney Wyman ’18, assistant to the warden and head resident of Main, and Mabel Victoria Ross, assistant to the warden, and directed by Centennial Coordinator George B. Dowell and Jane Alexander ’61.  Alexander wrote the lyrics for both the festivities and the proposed new Alma Mater which was premiéred, causing President Blanding to exclaim, "I've waited fifteen years for this!"

Matthew Vassar (Dowell) attended, along with his niece Lydia Booth (Ross) and Vassar's first Lady Principal Hannah Lyman (Wyman), who sang "Matthew Vassar, we thank you for the dough/ Were it not for you, we intellects would have no place to go."  A “Musical Cavalcade of the Century” presented “Vassar Girls” from different periods in history, including a Southern belle from the 1860s, a suffragette from the 'teens and, according to The Miscellany News, a "Bette Davis type" from the '30s who took her tune from Gershwin: "It ain't necessarily right/ For every young girl to be bright./ It may be her teacher's unable to reach her/ 'Cause she's taking courses at night!"  

The event concluded with a cake replicating the original Main Building.  "At first, no one wanted to eat the cake, for fear of destroying its beauty.  Finally, however, it was cut, every senior trying to eat her own room."     The Miscellany News

In what chairman Phoebe Jane Wood '63 called the "most gala event on the Vassar social calendar so far this year," the sophomore class presented "College All-Around Weekend," a program of events ranging from an address by American contralto and UN delegate Marian Anderson to a performance by comedian Shelley Berman and an original musical, "When Better Men Are Found."  A member of the United Nations Human Rights Committee since her appointment in 1958 by President Dwight Eisenhower, Anderson, who had recently sung at the inauguration of President John Kennedy, spoke on Friday evening in the Chapel on "A Step Towards Peace."

Saturday afternoon commedian Berman—a frequent guest on the Jack Parr and Perry Como television programs—performed in the Students' Building with musical support from folk-singers The Cumberland Three.  In the evening the curtain rose on "When Better Men Are Found," a musical by Bonnie Baskin '63, Sue Buck '63 and Judy Welles '63.  The cast was supported by a 17-voice chorus, five dancers and music by Phoebe Wood and Jackie Awad.

The play centered around "five girls' search for a C. A. G. [College All-around Guy]" that took them from a Vassar committee room to two Ivy colleges, "Hale" and "Yarvard," the Biltmore Hotel and a beatnik pad in Manhattan, "and to rustic Pickahick Falls, Arkansas," according to The Miscellany News. "As the Organizer of the search says, 'We'll not leave any men's rooms untouched.'"

Following the performance, a dance was held to the music of the Yale Six Pack from 10 p.m. to 2 a.m. "As an added attraction, 2:30s taken for this occasion will not be counted....  The weekend's final event will be a milk punch party on Sunday from 1-4 p.m. at Alumnae House.  The Spizzwinks, of Yale fame, will furnish the music to drink by."     The Miscellany News

In a Centennial event, the Vassar College Choir and the Harvard Glee Club, with the Brass Ensemble from the Harvard-Radcliffe Orchestra and the Wind Orchestra from Harvard's Bach Society Orchestra, presented a concert at Emanuel Church in Boston. Included in the program, under the direction of Elliot Forbes and Frederic H. Ford from Harvard and of Donald M. Pearson from Vassar, were two motets from the Symphonie Sacrae of Giovanni Gabrieli and the Mass in E Minor of Anton Bruckner.

The program was repeated at Vassar on April 18.

Thirteen Vassar students participated in the "Student Turn Towards Peace" demonstration in Washington D.C., sponsored by Robert Pickus’s Turn Toward Peace organization, whose goals were to end atmospheric nuclear testing, to persuade the government to find alternatives to the arms race and to call for disarmament. The students picketed the White House, in what The Miscellany News reported was "the largest peace picket of the White House in 20 years." The group met with Senate members, congressmen, labor leaders and foreign emissaries, conducted a march to the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and held a mass rally at the Washington Monument, at which socialist leader Norman Thomas and others spoke.

A group of about "Young Americans for Freedom" carrying signs bearing slogans such as "They're Not Red, They're Yellow," "Pacifism Is Cowardice" and "I Like Nike," counter-picketed at the White House.

Dr. Gladys Hobby '31, chair of the department of infectious diseases of the Veterans Administration Hospital in East Orange, New Jersey, gave the third lecture, entitled “Twenty Years with Antibiotics,” in a plant science series.  "Miss Hobby," said The Miscellany News, "divided her lecture into an historical introduction to the field of antibiotics and a description of the steps and problems involved in the production of an antibiotic  All of our major antimicrobial drugs of both biological and chemical origin were discovered within a span of twelve years.  Miss Hobby was primarily influential in the discovery of two of these, terramycin and biomycin."

In 1940, working at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia, Dr. Hobby had developed the first doses of penicillin to be tested on humans.

Joan Baez, called by The Miscellany News "a new folksinger who has attracted much attention recently," performed in the Students' Building as the "stellar attraction" of Frosh Weekend.  The 20 year-old singer, praised by Robert Shelton in The New York Times for an "almost laconic stage manner and marmoreal delivery that...steps back to let her poetic texts and lovely melodies take the limelight," had recently appeared at the Newport Jazz Festival, Harvard, Wellesley, Yale and the Dartmouth Winter Carnival.

Guest speakers, faculty and students joined In a centennial celebration, a “Festival of the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Residence halls were decorated in 91th century styles, students supplied tableaux appropriate to the presentations and lectures and a Soiree de Gala in the Students' Building—"free champagne in a 'meadow of asphodel'"—celebrated the event.   A special exhibition was mounted in the Library, and the Vassar Experimental Theater presented Ibsen's A Doll's House.

An exhibition in the art gallery, “Samuel F. B. Morse, Art and Science,” opened with the reading of a poem commissioned for the occasion, “S.F.B. Morse Sits for His Portrait at Locust Grove,” by poet Samuel French Morse, professor of English at Mount Holyoke College and a descendent Samuel F. B. Morse, a founding trustee of the college. Professor Morse's talk was preceded by a student sketch about Morse under the chairmanship of Babs Currier '63, entitled "Lightning in the Line."

The author of The House of Intellect (1959), Jacques Barzun, dean of faculties and provost at Columbia University, claimed a "new conciousness" must arise from the current "deliberate meaninglessness of modern artists" in the Phi Beta Kappa Lecture, "The Cultural Revolution and Its Victims," which was introduced by "The Magnificent Enterprise—A Colloquy."  Written by Esther Wolf '62, Jane Wright '62 and Professor John A. Christie from the English department, the sketch presented a dialogue between Matthew Vassar and Milo Jewett, the founding president of the college.  The dialogue included five student tableaux presenting contemporary reactions to the founding of the college: John Ruskin and two students; Vanity Fair magazine and a young girl; Madame Sewell "of the reactionary school" and a gentleman; John Stuart Mill and his father, the Scottish philosopher and historian James Mill; Florence Nightingale, Voltaire, a Vassar girl and a French gentleman, portrayed by Professor of French Louis Pamplume.

A lecture, "Lamarck, Darwin and Butler: Three Approaches to Evolution in the Nineteenth Century," by George Gaylord Simpson, professor of vertebrate paleontology at Harvard University and a leading scholar of evolution, was introduced by "Ape or Angel: A Presentation of the Huxley and Wilberforce Debate."  The student examination of the famous exchange on Darwinism at Oxford in 1880 between Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce was chaired by llsa Roslow '63.

In "A Time of Crisis" Civil War historian Bruce Catton, senior editor of American Heritage, analyzed both Abraham Lincoln's pragmatism and his idealism in issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.  And identifying the emancipation and the founding of women's education with a contemporary liberalizing movement in American in the 1860s, he echoed his introduction, the student sketch "Songs of the Brothers' War," which included Civil War songs, sung by Jane Alexander '61, "with intermittent narration about Poughkeepsie happenings at the time of the war."

On Sunday, the Rev, H. Richard Niebuhr, Sterling Professor of Theology and Christian Ethics  at the Yale Divinity School, addressed "The Radiance of the Infinite."     The Miscellany News


A radio discussion program focussing on the life of Matthew Vassar and produced by Vassar students Marsha Teller ‘61, Elizabeth Orton ‘61 and Edith Johnson ’61, debuted on Poughkeepsie radio station WEOK.  The program ran for the next 12 Sundays and, featuring guest drawn from the Vassar faculty and the larger Poughkeepsie community, subsequent topics were drama, politics, music, college admission and current events.     The Miscellany News


Commander Grace Murray Hopper '28, director for research programming for Remington Rand UNIVAC, gave the first Centennial Mathematics Lecture, on "New Languages."  "Research consists in discovering the obvious," she began, adding, according to Babs Currier '63, writing in The Miscellany News, that mathematics gives researchers in pursuit of the obvious "the special ability to think by different means in solving problems."  Currier found it "fascinating to realize that computers can be taught a language rather than numbers which can be manipulated by familiar operations in order to solve problems involving a conglomeration of data."

A commander in the Naval Reserves, Hopper was working to transform her compiler-based FLOW-MATIC programming language into the new language, COBOL, which became the fundamental business programming language.  In 1967, Hopper became director of the Navy Programming Group responsible for the COBOL standardization for the entire Navy.


Eminent historian of American art James Thomas Flexner spoke about Samuel F. B. Morse, a founding trustee of the college, in a lecture entitled "Samuel F. B. Morse and the American Aesthetic Dilemma."   Flexner completed his three-volume history of American art in 1962.


Foreign students held an informal meeting entitled “Nigeria Today.”  They hoped to acquaint the college community with the foreign student sand the countries from which they came.  Lina Makinwa ’64, from Nigeria, was the principal speaker.


"A Doll's House", a play by Henrik Ibsen, was performed by the Vassar Experimental Theater.

In a centennial observance, veteran actress Dorothy Stickney performed A Lovely Light, her portrait of Edna St. Vincent Millay ’17, as seen through her poems and letters.  Stickney presented the 1958 one-woman work on Broadway in 1960, directed then—as at Vassar—by her husband, the playwright, actor and director Howard Lindsay.

The college announced a development program seeking $25 million in new funds.  "In 1961 Vassar College," President Blanding said, "will celebrate her 100th anniversary not by extolling past achievements but with a commitment for the future. When we talk about the highest standards in education, what we really mean can be described simply enough: the best students, the best teachers, and the finest relationships between them. We believe that independent liberal arts colleges have a continuing responsibility to improve the education given to young people, to pose new educational questions, and to develop an educational program that meets their needs. Vassar's primary concern is and will continue to be improvement of its curriculum and its teaching. No college or university today can afford to rest on laurels of past accomplishments, however distinguished these may have been. Higher education has suddenly come face to face with a demanding present and an even more demanding future. To meet them both simultaneously requires bold planning and action."     The Miscellany News

Dorothy Stickney gave excerpts from her one-woman play about Edna St. Vincent Millay ’17, "A Lovely Light," at a luncheon honoring the “conspicuous excellence” of Sarah Gibson Blanding. The event, held at the Starlight Roof of the Waldorf-Astoria, was sponsored by the Vassar Club of New York and Vassar clubs of the region. In her remarks, President Blanding was pessimistic about the future of women’s colleges and unsparing on the profligacy of American higher education.
 “I believe,” she said, “I am on firm ground when I predict that of the hundred or more women’s colleges now in existence no more than ten will be functioning in the year 2061.” Despite their present “splendid achievements, present high social esteem and the influence and loyalty of their alumnae,” Miss Blanding said, the question could be raised “whether independent colleges—both those for men and those for women—will continue.
“There is little doubt that, if asked, the deans, the faculties and presidents of these hundred institutions would wish their colleges to survive essentially as they are today.  To assume that this will be the case is sheer folly unless drastic changes are effected.”
Agreeing with Jacques Barzun, dean of Columbia’s graduate faculties, the “next to hospitals, American colleges and universities are the worst administered private establishments in the land,” Blanding outlined the institutions’ “wastes:” of facilities, used “about seven hours of the day, five days a week and eight months of the year;” of faculties’ time, through “the multifarious committees that exist in the name of democratic process;” of student ability and interest, “because we insist that the four-year college course is sacred…and because we do not put enough responsibility on the student to get along with her own education” and of “contemporary usefulness,” because of “concentration of study, almost exclusively upon Western culture.         ”President Blanding announced that a team of Vassar trustees, faculty and administrators was at work on a ten-year plan intended to address the serious issues she had raised.     The New York Times

A major centennial event, an international conference on “Emerging values and new directions of present-day societies—their implications for education,” brought over 40 scholars, scientists, diplomats and writers, representing 20 countries in the non-Communist world, to the campus. After a welcome from President Blanding and a greeting from Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, British economist and political analyst Barbara Ward gave the keynote address to an audience of 500 in the Chapel.  Her topic was the comparative abilities of the West and those of the Communist countries to appeal to the world’s underdeveloped nations.  Although its basis is coercion, she said, the Communist model’s appeal as a ready-made system is likely to have an advantage in many African areas.  Miss Ward’s address was the basis for discussions in the following day’s seminars.
Other speakers included: Alva Myrdal, Swedish Ambassador to India and noted sociologist, author and teacher; Indian Deputy Minister of State Lakshmi Menon; American philosopher Susanne K. Langer, professor of philosophy at Connecticut College and fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Vera Micheles Dean, distinguished American author and lecturer, editor for the Foreign Policy Association and former Vassar trustee.
Panelists included Egyptian social worker and family planning pioneer Zahia Marzouk; Nigerian barrister and businesswoman J. Aduke Moore; British politician and diplomat David Owen; former Pakistani delegate to the U. N. Commission on the Status of Women Begum Anwar Ahmed; former Indian Minister of Health and president of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rajkumari Amrit Kaur,; Argentine economist and educational historian Dr. Elba Gomez del Rey de Kybal; Greek author and educator Ketty Stassinopoulou, vice-president of the International Council of Women; Danish Judge Helga Pedersen; Christian Democrat member of the German Bundestag and Federal Minister of Health Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt; Indonesian Minister of Health Hurustiati Subandrio; Korean educator Helen Kim, president of Ehwa Womans University; Margaret Ballinger, the first president of the South African Liberal Party and former member of the South African Parliament; Chilean educator and women’s rights advocate Irma Salas de Silva; Lebanese writer and educator Salwa C. Nassar; Yugoslavian composer and teacher Lala Spajic; Polish biochemist Alina Szumlewicz, a specialist in tropic diseases; Parvin Birjandi, the first dean of women at the University of Tehran, Iran; Dutch lawyer and diplomat Jeantine Hefting, former alternate delegate to the U. N. Commission on the Status of Women and Mexican jurist, playwright, journalist and ambassador Amalia de Castillo Ledón.
Discussion leaders included United Nations Under Secretary Ralph Bunche, Professor Emeritus of Economics Mabel Newcomer, foreign affairs expert Dr. Dorothy Fosdick, eminent teacher and critic Germaine Bree and Connecticut College President Rosemary Park.
The Voice of America, the United States government’s external broadcasting service, taped nearly half of the conference participants, and the interviews were broadcast in many countries.  The proceedings of the conference, edited and with commentary by the journalist, foreign correspondent and editor Emmet John Hughes, were published in 1962 by Harper and Row as Education in World Perspective: the International Conference on World Education, Celebrating the Centennial of Vassar College.
One hundred and ten alumnae gathered at Vassar for an update on the college's recent events.
Twenty sculptures by Professor Concetta Scaravaglione, were displayed in the Vassar College art gallery.
Former president of Sarah Lawrence College, Harold Taylor, lectured on "Education and the Dangers of Conservatism."
The London Vassar Club gave a Celebration Dinner to mark the centenary of the college in the Harcourt Room of the House of Commons. The guest of honor and chief speaker, Professor Arthur Lehman Goodhart, K.C., American-born international jurist, co-founder and editor of The Cambridge Law Journal and master of University College, Oxford. Goodhart was the first American to become master of an Oxford college and the second American to be made a King’s Counsel.
The Student Swupper Club presented a water ballet and synchronized swimming exhibition entitled "One Hundred Proof."
American harpsichordist, teacher and proponent of early music Albert Fuller gave a recital at Skinner Hall.  Fuller was the first artist to record the complete keyboard works of Jean-Philippe Rameau.
E.E. Cummings gave a reading of his poetry as a part of the Student Lecture series in the Chapel. The Miscellany News reported, “his poetry is filled with an almost child-like affirmation of life.”
British theologian and philosopher Austin Farrer, warden of Keble College, Oxford, lectured on "Divine Omnipotence and Human Freewill."
Game-theory scholar Professor Frank M. Stewart from Brown University spoke on “Games” in Taylor Hall, as the second Centennial Mathematics Lecture in the series sponsored by the mathematics department for the centennial year.
The Vassar College Choir, the Harvard Glee Club and the Wind Ensemble of the Eastman School of Music, gave a recital in honor of Vassar's centennial year.
The Committee on Instruction announced the creation of the Department of Independent Study for the next academic year as a necessary step in achieving “education of the whole woman.” The department was to be staffed by 14 scholars specializing in a wide array of areas of expertise from around the country.
Philip Evergood, American painter, draftsman and engraver, came to Vassar as a visiting artist to talk with students in the painting classes.
The Vassar Art Gallery held an exhibition of Sarmatian fibulae representing the early, middle, and late Sarmatian periods shown in contrast with items of similar design from upper Anatolia and Scythia.  The Sarmatians were an Iranian people who flourished between the 5th century BC and the 4th century AD.
The fibulae—brooches or fasteners— were part of the collection of the late Benito Mussolini and were acquired by Vassar through a grant form the International Fibulary Society.
Work by German-American architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, recipient of the American Institute of Architects' 1960 Gold medal, was shown in a photography exhibit.
Veteran American journalist and special assistant to the publisher of Time magazine, John Scott lectured on "Russia Revisited."  As a young man, Scott spent a decade in the Soviet Union working in the steel plants of Magnitogorsk, an experience on which he drew for his book, Behind the Urals, an American Worker in Russia’s City of Steel (1940).
The William's College Glee Club and the Vassar Glee club gave a concert.
Founder's Day was an all-student celebration in honor of Matthew Vassar. Concerts were given by the Yale Band and the Yale Glee Club.
Gore Vidal, historian, playwright, novelist and political activist, lectured in the Aula on the topic of "Love in a World of Strangers."
Pianist Basil Brominov gave a concert and a lecture of Russian music in Skinner Hall.
On a visit to South Vietnam, Vice President Lyndon Johnson hailed President Diem as the “Winston Churchill of Asia.”
President Kennedy sent 400 American Green Beret “special advisors” to train South Vietnamese soldiers in counterinsurgency warfare.
Professor Neal McCoy from the Smith College department of mathematics gave an open lecture to the senior mathematics seminar on “Boolean Rings” in Rockefeller Hall.
‘The Weird and the Wise,” by Jane Alexander ’61, which The Miscellany News  thought a “polished potpourri of centennial spoofing skits mixed with music,” was presented in Avery Hall.
Sixty members of the Vassar College Glee Club traveled to Annapolis, Maryland to perform with the U.S. Naval Academy Glee Club.
Italian-born American soprano Licia Albanese, a leading singer at the Metropolitan Opera, gave a concert under the auspices of Italian department. The concert, a gift from Miss Albanese, commemorated the centenary of Italian freedom and the unification of Italy as well as the centennial of Vassar College.
Vassar and the surrounding community celebrated Matthew Vassar Day, as proclaimed by Mayor Victor Waryas of Poughkeepsie and Town Supervisor, Thomas Mahar.  The festivities included a community parade in the morning (including costumed units and several Matthew Vassars) and open house for Poughkeepsie and Dutchess County friends in the afternoon sponsored by the Poughkeepsie Vassar Club.  The photography exhibit, “The Magnificent Enterprise, Education Opens the Door” was shown in the Aula; Noyes House, Ferry House, Chicago Hall and the Observatory were open to the public and campus tours were conducted by alumnae and student guides.  A movie, She Goes to Vassar, was shown in Chicago hall. The silent film, refitted with music by music professor Clair Leonard, was made in 1931 by filmmaker Mary Marvin Breckinridge ’27—as The Washington Post noted at its first showing—“to keep the alumnae in touch with the college, and to show parents…what their daughters will do at the school.”
In the evening, a centennial dinner for about one thousand people honored Vassar and capped the days events in the Field House of the IBM Country Club.  The college received an unrestricted gift of $29,550, from members of the Poughkeepsie community.

Republican Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, author of The Conscience of a Conservative and chairman of the Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee, lectured in the Chapel on the advantages of local versus federal support of schools.  In preparation for his presentation, Assistant Professor of History Clyde Griffen presented a critique of The Conscience of a Conservative.

Asserting that Sen. Goldwater believed that "the constitution...is an instrument above all for limiting the functions of government," Mr. Griffen criticized the book's positions on both national and international issues. While he he managed to, in the words of The Miscellany News, "poke holes in the Senator's condemnation of graduated income tax as a 'confiscatory tax' and of government intervention as leading to 'welfarism' and evil," Griffen was most concerned that Goldwater's suggestion that the United States withdraw recognition of communist countries. "Mr. Griffen felt this would only 'put us in an embarrassing position without any advantage'.... He said, 'The book, in terms of political theory, is incoherent.'"

The Vassar Art Gallery presented an exhibition of “Drawings and Watercolors from Alumnae and their Families; a Centennial Loan Exhibition.”  The exhibition moved to the Wildenstein Galleries, New York City, where it was on display from June 14 until September 9.

Testing new laws prohibiting segregation in interstate travel, more that 1,000 student volunteers began taking bus trips through the South, as “freedom riders,” provoking attacks by angry mobs.  The program was sponsored by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Congress  of Racial Equality (CORE).

Speaking at Commencement, Vassar trustee George C. McGhee, former ambassador to Turkey and recently appointed policy planner for the State Department, told the Class of 1961 that Cold War “containment” policies treating neutral nations as hostile were now out of date.  The Soviet Union, he told his audience, could not tolerate neutrality but the United States could and must, if it hoped to set “positive goals” for the world.  “Containment,” he said, “tended to divide our world into friends and foes.  Those who were not standing side by side to hold back the tide were considered to be against us.  In recent years we have come to understand that we can live with all truly freedom-loving nations.”     The New York Times
Vassar and Wellesley College collaborated for the first time to send thirty juniors to Washington D.C. for summer internships in politics.

An estimated 6,000 alumnae and spouses from the United States and ten foreign countries participated in Vassar's centennial reunion. Representatives of Vassar classes from as far back as 1889 joined in the parade led by a car containing Jenny Mae Wickes ’89, Henrietta Houston Hawes ’91 and Louise Lawrence Meigs ‘91.


President Blanding announced that alumnae centennial gifts reached “the magnificent sum” of $1,352,680, the largest annual alumnae gift in the college’s history.  The alumnae, “the pride and glory of the college,” the president said, “have insured freedom and vitality for the college to grow and change.”  Another gift, announced at an earlier date, was an enlarged steel engraving, 17 by 20 inches, of the south front view of the White House, in a shadow-box gold frame with antique velvet matting.  President Blanding read the enclosed message from Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy, ex-’51:


“I am proud to have been a student at the first large woman’s college in the United States to achieve its 100th birthday.  I know Vassar will continue to instill in each student, along with the love of knowledge, a desire to serve her family, her community and the nation.  The President joins me in congratulating you today.”


The reunion events included two short comic operas “Mardi Gras,” by Mildred Kayden '42, and “Trial of the Dog,” adapted from The Wasps of Aristophanes by Martha Alter '25, and a pageant of college life, “The Colors of the Day,” by Muriel Ruykeyser ’34 in the Outdoor Theatre. The centennial photographic exhibition, The Magnificent Enterprise: Education Opens the Door, continued.     The New York Times

The Hudson Valley Philharmonic Orchestra, with the Hudson Valley Chorale under the direction of Claude Monteux, presented the first concert performance of Vittorio Rieti's  ballet Trionfo di Bacco e Arianna.
The Vassar College Centennial Loan Exhibition, 155 drawings and water-colors, plus one Goya oil—on a three and a half inch square of ivory—was displayed at Wildenstein & Co. in New York City.  Writing in The New York Times, critic John Canaday hailed the “summer-long delight of an exhibition,” lent by 56 alumnae and their families.  Artists represented included Rembrandt, Watteau, Gainsborough, Daumier, Cézanne, Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso and Leger.  The earliest work was an English parchment drawing from around 1400.
The drawings were gathered together by Belle Krasne Ribicoff ’45, and A. Hyatt Mayor, curator of prints at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, headed a selection committee consisting of Louisa Dresser ’29, Katharine Kuh ’24 and Aline B. Sarrinen ’53.  Proceeds from the New York exhibition went to the Art Gallery’s Agnes Rindge Claflin Purchase Fund, and the show’s comprehensive catalogue was also dedicated to Professor Claflin, a gesture that John Canaday thought appropriate, because her “teaching accounts for much of the interest that has led Vassar graduates to own drawings.”      The New York Times
Two hundred and fifty members of the New York State Citizens' Council attended the 17th Annual Institute of Community Leadership at Vassar. Topics discussed over the three days the topics discussed included "City and Suburbia in Transition", "The Future of Higher Education in New York State" and "Integration versus Ghetto."
Two hundred and fifty members of the New York State Citizens' Council attended the 17th Annual Institute of Community Leadership at Vassar.
Summer workshops in French and Russian began. The programs were sponsored by the college and the New York State education department.

Under the direction of Professor John Johnsen of the department of geology, Vassar held a National Science Foundation summer earth science program for high school students.

Inez G. Nelbach, acting dean of studies and associate in English at Barnard College, was appointed the first dean of studies.   The new post came about through a redistribution of decanal duties.  In place of a dean and an assistant dean, the college now had deans of the faculty, of studies and of freshmen.
Sarah Gibson Blanding reported that for the 1960-61 academic year the college received $2,510,000 in gifts.
The Soviets cut off all access to West Germany from East Germany, closing the gates between the two sectors in Berlin and erecting the Berlin Wall, which separated the two regions until November of 1989.

The college opened for its second century with the largest enrollment in its history, 1,493 students, of whom 434 were freshmen.

The college instituted the Matthew Vassar scholarship to be given to sixty students, fifteen in each class. Up to $ 2,500 was awarded to the students as either financial aid or an honorary scholarship.

Vassar received a grant for $ 1,000,000 from the Old Dominion Foundation, a foundation established in 1941 by Paul Mellon.  In 1949, the foundation gave the college $2,000,000, with which it established the Mary Conover Mellon Fund for the Advancement of Education, named in honor of Mr. Mellon’s wife, a member of the Class of 1926.
The Lenox Quartet, a string group, performed at Vassar.
General Maxwell Taylor and Kennedy aide Walt Rostow visited Vietnam.  Rostow, warning that “If Vietnam goes, it will be exceedingly difficult to hold Southeast Asia,” Rostow recommended that more military advisor be sent to the country.
Barbara Gerson ’63 started a new political club called “Organization for Political Awareness,” hoping to investigate the solution to contemporary problems offered by the Democratic left.
Students disappointed with the Vassar Literary Review formed a second student literary magazine, The New Century. Editor Ilsa Rosenberg ’63 hoped that it would “be representative of the Vassar students’ creative abilities.”
Shakespeare scholar Helen Sandison, professor emeritus of English, was the guest of her one-time student, Jacqueline Kennedy, at a dinner in the White House.  After dinner, four scenes from Shakespeare were performed for the guest of honor, Sudanese President Ibrahim Abboud, on a new, permanent stage in the East Ballroom.  The troupe, under the direction of Jack Landau and Lincoln Kirstein, performed scenes from Macbeth, As You Like It, Henry V and Troilus and Cressida.
Also in the audience were British Shakespearean actor Sir Ralph Richardson, Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, Joseph Pultizer, Jr., Under Secretary of State Chester Bowles, David Rockefeller and Henry Cabot Lodge, former United States representative to the United Nations.  Dr. James G. McManaway, senior staff member of the Folger Shakespeare Library and editor of The Shakespeare Quarterly, noted that President Kennedy now joined his predecessors Lincoln, Jefferson and Adams in his demonstrated love of Shakespeare.     The New York Times
English-born theologian Professor Ursula M. Niebuhr from Barnard College spoke on "The Point of the Story." The first woman to win a scholarship to Union Theological Seminary in New York City, Professor Niebuhr was the wife of theologian Reinhold Niebuhr.
Eminent ethnomusicologist David McAllester of Wesleyan University lectured on "Music and Culture."
Ravi Shankar, an Indian sitarist and composer, performed a program of classical Hindusthani music.
Veteran journalist Harrison E. Salisbury, assistant managing editor of The New York Times, gave the Barbara Bailey Brown Lecture, entitled "America in Asia: World Crisis."  Salisbury, who won a Pulitzer Prize (1955) as the first Times correspondent in Moscow after World War II and two George Polk Awards for foreign reporting (1957, 1966), was an outspoken opponent of the war in Vietnam.
An Academic Convocation at Vassar drew representatives from over 300 educational Institutions world-wide to conclude the centenary observances of the college. The day began with a procession to the Outdoor Theater of college trustees, faculty members, public officials, representatives of the board of regents and the state department of education, and institutional representatives.  Institutions attending the convocation marched in reverse order to their founding, with Dr. Frank K. Mosher, president of Rockland Community College, founded in 1959, leading the procession and historian Max Belof, professor of government in public administration at the University of Buckingham, England, concluding the line of march, representing his alma mater, the University of Oxford, founded in 1214.
In his remarks, President Emeritus Henry Noble MacCracken characterized the colorful procession as “a pious pilgrimage of scholars bringing tribute t this temple of learning.”  In the principal address, Radcliffe President Mary Ingraham Bunting ’31, speaking on the theme of "Cultural Evolution," urged imagination and innovation in educating the young around the world.  “It is indeed one race,” she declared, “and in countries all over the world, I believe, youth senses this and feels a loyalty to the human condition that far outweighs allegiance to any intermediate governmental groups.”     The New York Times
Contemporary French writer and illustrator Jean Bruller, co-founder of Les Éditions de Minuit who wrote during the French Resistance in World War II as “Vercors,” gave a lecture entitled  "De la Resistance a la Philosophie."
Charles Jones of the Divinity School of the University of South Carolina, and Charles McDew a senior at the University of North Carolina, both leaders of SNCC, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, spoke about their work in McComb, Mississippi.  They discussed the terrors faced by black voters attempting to register in their area.
Anne Oliver, lecturer at the University of Manchester in England, spoke at Vassar on Scottish Poetry.
Marine biologist George L. Clarke, of Harvard University and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, lectured on "Light and Its Effects in the Deep Sea." Clarke offered Harvard’s first course in ecology, in 1939.
Contemporary trends in art, literature, music, cinema and dance were discussed with Vassar students by some of those involved in creating the trends at a Contemporary Arts Conference, held in observance of the centennial. Jonas Mekas, film critic for The Village Voice lectured on New Cinema and William Rubin, art collector and historian—later, curator of painting and sculpture at the Museum of Modern Art—lectured on "American Avant Garde Painting Today." Poets Kenneth Koch, James Merill and Barbara Gatson Higgins read and discussed their work, and novelists Saul Bellow, Paul Goodman, and Elizabeth Harwick Lowell discussed the contemporary novel. A lecture by American modern dance pioneer Helen Tamiris and her husband and dancing partner Daniel Nagrin on “Trends in Modern Dance” was followed by a discussion on modern dance, and rising young pianist Howard Lebow gave a piano recital of contemporary music on the conference’s closing night.  A round table discussion the following day closed.
Commissioned for the college’s centennial, Command Performance, an opera by Professor of Music Robert Middleton, premièred at Vassar.  Produced by the Boston Opera Group and with a libretto by Harold Smith, the work centered on relations between England and Turkey in the mid-16th century.  The cast included: Metropolitan Opera soprano Blanche Thebom, as Elizabeth I, and bass Ezio Flagello and tenor Thomas Heyward, also from the Metropolitan, baritone Robert Treny, from the Sante Fe Opera, New York Opera soprano Doris Yarick and baritone James Billings, from the Boston Opera.
Students from across the nation attended the Collegiate Council for the United Nations in New York City. Representatives from Vassar included Lois Hansen ‘64, Marjorie Mueller ‘64, Sally Murphy ‘63, Susan Porter ’63, Claire Sheahan ‘64, Anne Hendricks ‘63, Mary Humphreys ‘64 and Sue Wallin ’63, who reported that on most campuses students were actively interest in seeing efforts toward world harmony replace threats of nuclear agression.  In his keynote address to the council India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru declared, “we must bring our ‘old world’ thinking into line with our ‘new world’ scientific achievements in order to avoid nuclear destruction.”

Poet and critic I. A. Richards, professor of English at Harvard University and influential proponent of in the "New Criticism," read from and commented on his own poetry. A former lecturer in English and moral sciences at his Alma Mater, Magdalene College at Cambridge, Richards had early on advocated a "practical criticism" based on semantics and unannotated "close reading" of texts, grounded in such works as The Meaning of Meaning (1923; with C. K. Ogden), Principles of Literary Criticism (1924) and Practical Criticism (1929). He had spoken twice before at Vassar, comparing, in 1941, passages from Dryden's "To the Pious Memory of the accomplished young Lady, Mistress Anne Killigrew" and "An Anatomy of the World, the First Anniversary," by John Donne and answering the question, "What is general education?" in 1947 by describing his course at Harvard based solely on the Iliad, certain books of the Old Testament and the philosophy and writings of Plato.

Turning to the writing of poetry in the last decades of his life, Richards's prompted a writer in The Miscellany News  to approach  his reading with caution. "When a critic and teacher as influential as Dr. Richards,"she wrote, "publishes his own poetry for the first time quite late in life there is bound to be a great deal of interest in seeing how he has 'practiced what he preached.'" The event, however, held no discord. "His reading," she observed, "was highly personal, and his comments witty, so that from the beginning the audience had a sense of informality which seems to be so helpful when poetry is read, since appreciatioin can involve a personal understanging as well as a grasp of what is said.... Dr. Richards indicated at the end of his reading that his theme had been 'personal identity.' He described poetry as a 'spirit-calming ceremony' which operates in the 'silences' of a poem."     The Miscllany News

The Vassar College Glee Club, directed by Albert van Ackere, and the Lehigh University Glee Club, directed by Robert Cutter, gave a joint performance in Skinner Hall.
David Jeffreys, the former director of studies and cultural activities at the International School in Rome, gave a "A Tour of Ancient Greece" in Taylor Hall, sponsored by the department of classics.
John E. Allen III, instructor in Russian, gave a lecture on Linguo-Mathematics in the New England Building, sponsored by the Student Science Club.
Julia McGrew of the English department gave a lecture entitles “A Dream and a Debate,” presented by the English and history departments.
The Budapest String Quartet performed a program of chamber music.
Former editor for the Michigan Daily at the University of Michigan Thomas Hayden, co-founder and southern field secretary for Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), spoke at Vassar about the civil rights movement.  In 1962, the SDS issued its manifesto, The Port Huron Statement, drafted by Tom Hayden.
In 1972, he travelled to Vietnam with Jane Fonda ex-’59, and they were married the following year.
Former editor for the Michigan Daily at the University of Michigan Thomas Hayden, co-founder and southern field secretary for Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), spoke at Vassar about the civil rights movement.  In 1962, the SDS issued its manifesto, The Port Huron Statement, drafted by Tom Hayden.
In 1972, he travelled to Vietnam with Jane Fonda ex-’59, and they were married the following year.
The United States aircraft carrier Cole arrived in the capital of Vietnam, Saigon, with 33 helicopters and 400 crewmen to fly and service them.
Adolf Katzenellenbogen, chairman of the fine arts department at Johns Hopkins University, lectured on ‘The Reality of Ideas in Mediaeval Art: The Image of Christ,” in Taylor Hall. One of the world’s most prominent scholars on medieval iconography, Professor Katzenellenbogen, an émigre´ from Nazi Germany, taught at Vassar from 1940 until 1956.
Myrtle Tinklepaugh, chairman of the Columbia County Republicans, gave an informal talk on “Women in Politics” in the Old Council Room of Students’ Building, as the first in a series of talks sponsored by the Vassar Young Republicans.
The Vassar College Choir, directed by Margaret E. Cawley, gave a joint concert with the Colgate University Glee Club, under the direction of William Skelton.
In Vietnam, after tests the previous August, the United States began “Operation Ranch Hand,” helicopter spraying of the defoliant “Agent Orange,” containing the deadly chemical Dioxin, along roads, over heavily forested tracts and on fields that might supply food for the Viet Cong.
Violinist, Alice Smiley, cellist, Sterling Hunkins, and pianist Robert Guralnik, performed in the Philharmonic Chamber Music Concert at Vassar.
In his State of the Union address, President Kennedy said, “ It is the fate of this generation…to live with a struggle we did not start in a world we did not make….  But the pressures of life are not always distributed by choice.  And while no nation has ever faced such a challenge, no nation has ever been so ready to seize the burden and the glory of freedom.” 
The following day, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announced that he and Ambassador to South Vietnam Frederick E. Nolting, Jr. were flying to Hawaii for a day-long meeting on “the Communist threat to South Vietnam.”  An aide said that Secretary McNamara was “determined to leave ‘no stone unturned’ in the effort to support South Vietnam against the communist guerrillas, known as the Viet Cong.”       The New York Times
Over 100 sociologists, physiologists and educators gathered at Vassar to discuss the conclusions reached in University of California Professor of Psychology Nevitt Sanford’s new book, The American College: A Psychological and Social Interpretation of the Higher Learning.   Building on a study begun when Sanford was director, at Vassar, of the Mary Conover Mellon Fund for the Advancement of Education, Sanford’s 1,084-page volume, comprised of the work of 30 social scientists, was sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.  Its college analyses came from Harvard, Vassar, Boston College, the University of Massachusetts, San Francisco State College and scores of other institutions.  Among its several blunt assertions were strong advocacy of a greater application of the social sciences to the problems of higher education and charges that colleges were not achieving their intellectual goals and that they were engaging in “considerable bamboozlement” by hiding from the public what went on in their ivory towers.
Karl W. Deutsch, professor of Political Science at Yale University, delivered the opening speech, entitled “The Challenge to Liberal Education,” in which he outlined the goals of higher education.   Taking issue with a recommendation of the Sanford volume, Deutsch said that many freshmen whom the social scientists would “orientate” would be better served by a year’s maturation during a pre-freshman year abroad under college supervision or “a productive year of paid work or voluntary service, freed from the anxiety by advance assurance of admission the following year.
Other participants also challenged the "new findings about intellectual and personality development during the college years" outlined in the book.  Dr. William C. H. Prentice, dean at Swarthmore College, called much of the book’s material “armchair theorizing” and “generalizations about the American college on the basis of superficial acquaintance with a small number of nonrepresentative institutions.”  “I think I can detect,” he also told his colleagues, “in many of the contributors to the present volume a predilection toward making our colleges into institutions for personal and social development.”
Dr. William Carl Fels, president of Bennington College, praised the studies in the volume, calling the work the “greatest challenge” to educators since John Dewey’s Democracy and Education appeared in 1916.   “The reason The American College presents a formidable challenge to collegiate education,” he said, “is that it now calls upon them to face up to both Dewey and Freud, and, except for a handful of them, they haven’t yet faced up to Dewey.  It has caught educators with their means down and their ends exposed.”
 As the conference drew to a close, some participants spoke of another such gathering at Vassar in a year’s time.      The New York Times
Four Centuries of Architectural Drawings, an exhibition from the Collection of the Library of the Royal Institute of British Architects, opened at the Vassar College Art Gallery.  The exhibit focused on English draftsmanship and included works from the 16th-19th centuries, tracing the history of English architecture from medieval times through the Victorian era.  The exhibition toured art museums and art institutions throughout the US and Canada under the auspices of The American Federation of Arts.

Speaking in the Chapel, progressive educator Harold Taylor, president emeritus of Sarah Lawrence College, and William F. Buckley, Jr., editor of the conservative journal The National Review and author of God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of 'Academic Freedom' (1951), presented liberal versus conservative viewpoints on education in the year's first event in the Student Lecture Series.  Taylor held, as the first sentence of a 1961 essay in The New York Times Magazine declared, that "each generation has its own style and its own truth, having lived through a particular expanse of time which belongs to it and to no other."  "The only difference between the liberal and conservative in education," he told his Vassar audience, according to The Miscellany News, "is that the first encorages the student to use his own intellect, the second does not." Claiming that his main interest in Taylor was "pathological, rather than intellectual," Buckley directed attention to the "immutable truths, which the educator has a duty to pass on to his students. He attacked any concept of academic freedom which would constrain the teacher to present all points of view at the expense of presenting one truth."

"Tempers grew progressively shorter, and insults grew progressively longer...." The debate, said The Misc. "was originally intended to center on the liberal-conservative views on education, but soon developed into a more general squabble."  Discussion about the confrontation continued on campus for weeks to follow.

The two men were frequent disputants on the subject of education.  Taylor also appeared on Buckley’s popular television program, "Firing Line."

George M. A. Hanfmann, Professor of Fine Arts at Harvard University and field director at the current excavations at the ancient city of Sardis in Turkey, lectured on “Drawing and Measure in Ancient Architecture.” Tracing the history of architectural drawing and measurement from pre-historical clay sealings and Egyptian papyri to the writings of the Roman architect Vitruvius and illustrated manuscripts of medieval surveyors, Professor Hanfmann examined the question of the extent to which the temples of ancient Greece were designed and drawn beforehand by their architects.     The Miscellany News

Columbia University sociologist Robert Merton, founder of the sociology of science, lectured on "The State of the Social Sciences in the Soviet Union." Considered one of the founders of modern sociology and the developer of the concept of "unintended consequences" and of the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy," Professor Merton was one of the first American sociologists to visit the USSR, in 1961 with a group of behavioral scientists. Somewhat encouraged by recent turnings toward empiricism in Soviet social science, he stood apart from many Western observers, holding that it remained atheoretical and resembled market research more than rigorous scholarship.
Fred M. Hechinger, education editor of The New York Times, spoke in the Students' Building on "Changing Patterns in Education." The lecture was sponsored by the child study department.

Welcomed with great enthusiasm by the student body, folk singer Pete Seeger performed at Vassar for freshman week.  The event drew protests from the American Legion and other local organizations, who considered him a “condemned criminal.” Seeger was fighting for a retrial on charges of contempt of Congress arising from his refusal to answer questions before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1955.

In response to the controversy the college explained that it was the freshman class, not the college, which sponsored Seeger's appearance—the first of Seeger's many visits to Vassar.

An appeals court overturned Seeger’s conviction in May, 1962.

Curt J. Ducasse, professor emeritus of philosophy at Brown University, lectured on “Paranormal Phenomena, Science, and the After Life” in Skinner.  The lecture covered topics such as levitation, precognition, mediums, clairvoyance, and other extrasensory perception. Ducasse argued that these phenomena indicate that the mind survives the body, supporting the belief in life after death with a scientific approach.
Seven Vassar students and one faculty member participated in a demonstration in Albany urging the adoption of State Assemblyman Mark Lane’s bill repealing the bill introduced by Governor Rockefeller which provided for state subsidy of a fall-out shelter building program; Lane’s bill suggested that the shelter money be used to aid education.
Dr. David B. Langmuir, associate director of the physical research division, Space and Technology laboratories in Los Angeles, lectured on "The Astounding and Prosaic in Space Research."
Two Vassar students were among some 400 students from 80 colleges and universities attending the First Intercollegiate Conference on Disarmament and Arms Control, organized by three seniors at Swarthmore College.  Twenty-five of the nation’s leading nongovernmental experts in the field led 20 seminars at the three-day conference.
President Kennedy praised the conference for promoting, “an increased awareness of the need for responsible and informed public understanding.”      The New York Times
Maynard Mack, professor of English at Yale University, lectured on "The Last and the Greatest Art: Some Observations on Shaping of Pope's poems."
Professor Leon Dostert, director and founder of the linguistics institute, Georgetown University, and initiator and organizer of the system of simultaneous translation used at the Nuremberg Trials and similarly at the United Nations, lectured on ‘Trends in the Teaching of Foreign Language in Europe” in Chicago Hall.
Seventeen Vassar students participated in the Student Turn Toward Peace demonstration in Washington, D.C, where some 2,800 students from all over the country urged President Kennedy not to resume atmospheric nuclear testing.  Despite the taunts of “Young Americans for Freedom” and attempts by reporters for the Communist Daily Worker to engage them, the students remained calm and determined.  “But for the placards,” The New York Times reported, “they might have been queuing up to see a late-in-the-season football game at Harvard Stadium.”
“We’re the right wing among the disarmament groups,” Harvard senior David Ottaway explained, “We’re not pacifists.  We’re not for selling out to the Russians.”     The New York Times

French composer and teacher Nadia Boulanger, hailed in The Miscellany News,  as “the most influential individual in American music for the past forty years,” lectured, with illustrations by the Vassar Madrigals, and conducted a master class in harmonic analysis. On a two-month tour of the United States,  Mlle. Boulanger visited several colleges and universities, conducted two concerts of the New York Philharmonic and dined at the White House with President Kennedy and the First Lady, with whom she enjoyed lively conversations in French.

"Nadia Boulanger arrived at Vassar," wrote Allison Lemkauy '63 in The Miscellany News, "as astronaut [John] Glenn was descending...from his orbital flight in space. The impact of her pressence upon the campus was comparable to that of Glenn's achievement upon the world. For two days, any semblance of normalcy in or around the Music Department disappeared, while Mlle. Boulanger, possessing limitless energy, captivated her audiences with accounts of her many varied experiences in music and revealed during a master class in performance her dedication to young people and their education." The mentor and powerful influence, over the years, on some 600 American composers and musicians, she counted among her students composers Aaron Copland, Elliott Carter, Philip Glass and Walter Piston, jazz pianist Dave Brubeck, pianist and songwriter Burt Bacharach and American mezzo-soprano Judith Malafronte '72. Three former students, pianist and composer Robert Middleton, violist Betty Churgin and pianist Gwendolyn Hamilton, were on the Vassar faculty at the time of this visit.  

Mlle. Boulanger visited Vassar in January 1925.

A frequent visitor to Vassar, Rev. James H. Robinson, founder of Operation Crossroads America, a pioneering program that brought young people from North America to work alongside and come to know their African contemporaries, described the program in his lecture, “Operation Crossroads Africa—A New Venture Beyond Boundaries.”
Richard C. Solomon, psychology professor of University of Pennsylvania, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Conservation Lecture on "Conscience and Resistance to Temptation in Dogs and Children.”
Charlotte B. Winsor, director of the division of teacher education at Bank Street College of Education, lectured on "A Developmental Approach to Education."
Folk Singers Dave Van Ronk and Roy Berkely gave a concert to benefit the Southern Student Freedom Fund in Students’ Building.
A four-day conference at Vassar discussed the problem of urban decay. The opening address at the "Conference on the City" was given by William H. Whyte, editor of Fortune Magazine, who spoke about "The Politics of Open Space." Robert Lopez, mediaeval studies professor at Yale University, discussed "The City as a Business Affair," and two student panels met to discuss "The Image of the City" and "Problems of Urbanization."
Professors from several colleges gathered in a colloquium on "The City in History.”  The round-table discussion included David Hicks of Columbia, John Teall of Mount Holyoke, Fred Crain and Hsi Huey Liang of Bard, and members of the Vassar Faculty, Leslie Koempel of the department of economics, sociology and anthropolgy, Charles Jacob of the political science department, Thomas McCormick of the art department and Elaine Bjorklund of the geography department.  Webb S. Fiser, associate professor of political science at Syracuse University, spoke about "Mastery of the Metropolis."
Urban activist Jane Jacobs, author of Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) gave the closing lecture on "The Citizen and Urban Renewal."
Anne-Marie Stokes, editor of the Catholic Worker and a member on the board of the American Committee on Africa, lectured on "Claudel," sponsored by the French department.
Jonathan B. Bingham, United States representative on the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations, spoke on "The Free World's Stake in the United Nations."

In an all-campus meeting, President Sarah Gibson Blanding told the student body that premarital sex and excessive drinking would not be tolerated at Vassar.  Declaring sexual promiscuity to be “indecent and immoral,” she said that disciplinary action would be taken against those who did not follow the standards of the college. The President advised those students who could not follow the rules to withdraw voluntarily from Vassar.

The speech inspired heated debate across the campus for some time.  A poll of students found that 52% of the campus supported Blanding, 40% disagreed and the rest were undecided. However, 81 % of students agreed that social mores were personal issues that should only be of concern to the college when they brought its name into public disrepute. An editorial in The Miscellany News said, “The president’s statement was an articulation of a hitherto ambiguous position which accepts only one standard of personal behavior and which defines a universal moral code of ‘decent’ personal conduct.”

The students opposed to Blanding’s views felt that the college was reverting to an archaic invasion into students’ private lives by considering itself responsible for instilling in them a prescribed set of views on sexual and social activity, complaining that, “this college is the domain of tyranny.”     The Miscellany News

The Vassar College Choir, conducted by Margaret E. Cawley, and the Wesleyan University Choral society, gave a concert in the Vassar College Chapel.
Dr. Hans E. Holthusen, German author, poet and critic, lectured on "Crossing the Zero Point: German Literature Since World War II" under the auspices of the German Department.
Robert C. Zaehner, fellow of All Souls College and Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics, University of Oxford, lectured on "The Teaching of Zoroaster."
Four Vassar students participated in an intercollegiate conference on Civil Right in the North at Sarah Lawrence, where they conversed with leaders of the civil rights movement.
To explore questions raised by the national conference held at Vassar in January on Dr. Nevitt Sandford’s  provocative study, The American College: A Psychological and Social Interpretation of the Higher Learning, a local discussion, “The American College,” took place in the Aula. The panel, moderated by Professor of Psychology L. Joseph Stone, included Mario Domandi, professor of Italian, college psychiatrist Dr. Robert E. Nixon, Professor of Art Linda Nochlin ‘51,  Sue Childers ’63 and Elizabeth Bruening ’63.
Author, editor, and literary critic Lionel Trilling, professor of English at Columbia University, lectured on "The Anti-Heroic Principle in Literature and Morality."
Sarah Gibson Blanding, president of the college since 1946, announced that she would retire in 1964.
Thirty Vassar students travelled to West Point to hear a reading of selections from his latest book, The Reivers, by William Faulkner, Nobel Prize-winning novelist.
Historian and philosopher James Joll, Fellow and Sub-Warden of St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford, spoke on "Marinetti and Futurism."
Seven Vassar students participated in a Freedom Ride to La Plata, ND, where 300 participants conducted sit-ins and picketed local restaurants as part of the Northern Student Movement. When six of the protesters were arrested, the Freedom Riders then picketed and sang songs outside of the jails in which they were held.
Vassar students, faculty and city housewives demonstrated against nuclear testing in front of the Poughkeepsie courthouse and city office building for one hour. A peace vigil was later held in the center of Poughkeepsie arranged by Dutchess County Women for Peace, Poughkeepsie SANE, and the Vassar for Peace Committee.
Andres Valdespino, a member of the underground movement in Havana that overthrew the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and undersecretary of finance in Fidel Castro’s government until 1960, talked about “The Cuban Revolution” in Chicago Hall.
The Inter-Club Council and the presidents of the junior and senior classes organized two events to raise issues relating to sex and marriage more directly than the resources provided by the college.  The Inter-Club Council sponsored a panel discussion by members of each of the three major faiths: Reverend William Carroll, S.J. Professor of Humanities at St. Andrew-on-Hudson Seminary; Seward Hitner, Professor of Technology and Personality, Princeton Theological Seminary; and Rabbi Rosenthal from the Vassar Temple.  They discussed the relationship between their faith and marriage in its moral and religious aspect.  The junior and senior classes sponsored a lecture entitled “The Problem of Conception Control for the World and the Individual” by Allan F. Guttmacher, birth-control pioneer and president of Planned Parenthood.
President Blanding was one of nine people appointed to a state advisory committee to study the state's minimum drinking age, currently 18. The committee’s charge was to advise a joint legislative committee about raising the minimum drinking age to 21.
A joint concert by the Vassar College Glee Club, conducted by Albert Van Ackere, and The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glee Club, under the direction of Klaus Liepman, was held in the Vassar Chapel.
Four hundred members of the Poughkeepsie community attended the sixth annual "Community Day at Vassar." The college, with the help of the Poughkeepsie Area Vassar Club, invited citizens of the area to come to an open house, where they could learn about academic and student lives at Vassar.
Vassar President Sarah Gibson Blanding attended a dinner at the White House honoring Nobel Prize winners. The dinner was given by John F. and Jacqueline Kennedy. Sarah Gibson Blanding was seated with the First Lady.
President Kennedy ordered and immediate build-up of 5,000 United States troops in Thailand.
Participants in the Walk for Peace from Hanover, New Hampshire, to Washington D.C., arrived in Poughkeepsie to take part in a public meeting held at Vassar. Two other groups were walking simultaneously in different parts of the country, to protest the arms race.
Paul C. Daniels, United States representative to the cultural action committee of the Organization of American States, spoke at Vassar’s 98th Commencement, telling the 277 graduates in the Class of 1962 to beware of unbridled idealism.  “More harm,” he said, “has been done to the world through the combined efforts of the do-gooders than by the evil-doers.”  “Idealism,” he warned, “is not enough,” because the “frustrations” it creates can be dangerous and destructive.
The chairman of the board of trustees, John Wilkie, announced that gifts to the college for the year totaled more than $2,500,000, including a senior-class gift of $22,969 for library purchases.     The New York Times
Breaking with tradition, the Class of 1912 came to the campus two days early for its 50th reunion, so that its members could draw on their various and numerous experiences to discuss such questions as what values had endured since their graduation, what was the position and the responsibility of the college woman in the world of 1962 and what was the proper relationship of alumnae to the college.  The class gift, $422,657 was added to those of other classes, such as the $79,224 raised by 1937 for its 25th reunion, for a total Alumnae Fund gift for 1962 of $1,042,983.     The New York Times
Advanced chemistry study was offered at Vassar for 15 high school students. The program was made possible by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
A six-week earth science summer institute opened at Vassar for 42 junior high and high school teachers from fifteen different states.
Faculty-freshman discussion groups met under the auspices of the faculty club, in an attempt to explore ways to improve the Freshman year.
The board of trustees determined late sign-outs should last until 2:30 a.m. on Friday and Saturday nights, but only until 1:30 a.m. on Sunday through Thursday nights, because “A 2:30 permission when places close at 1 a.m. invites conflict with the college’s standards.”
The Senate voted to repeal the Communist disclaimer clause in the program of federal loans for college students.  This clause had demanded that students renounce any communist affiliations before receiving federal loans for college.  In the Spring of 1960, Vassar, along with Harvard, Yale, and 29 other colleges and Universities in the country, refused to participate in the loan program on the grounds that the disclaimer clause was an invasion of the students’ personal rights.
When President Kennedy signed the bill into law in October, a three-year struggle in which he had been involved as a Senator, came to an end.
Governor Rockefeller spoke at the Poughkeepsie Plaza Shopping Center to mark the official opening of the 1962 Republican Campaign in Poughkeepsie.  Vassar students welcomed him with a banner.  He cited unemployment and education as his two major concerns for New York State.
After a meeting held under the chairmanship of Lois Mound ’63, with Professor Charles Griffin of the history department as its speaker and about 50 Vassar students in attendance, the Vassar-Mississippi Action Committee was formed over concerns for the safety of James Meredith, the first black student to attend the University of Mississippi. Rioting broke out as Meredith attempted to attend classes, and Governor Ross Barnett, 35 state senators and the Mississippi State Police barred Mr. Meredith from attending classes.
The Vassar-Mississippi Action Committee sent a petition supporting President Kennedy’s efforts for integration and pressing for further gains in civil rights through the residence halls for signatures, after which it was sent to Congress. The committee also decided to correspond with Southern and "Ole Miss" students, stressing the need for non-violent action.
Students organized a student-to-student, North-South dialogue, which strove “to combat the pervasive feeling that people in the North don’t understand and don’t know what is going on in the South.” Barbara Gerson ‘63 commented, “We hope that raising this issue will be the first step in a year long discussion at Vassar of integration.”     The Miscellany News
Walter Trampler, viola and viola d'amore virtuoso and founder of the New Music Quartet, gave a concert consisting of a variety of works from 17th, 18th , 19th  and 20th  century composers.
Freshmen met in Chicago Hall to discuss the problems of college adjustment, led by Professor of Child Study Henrietta Smith.  The students explained that they came to college in search of “education for education’s sake” and expressed fear about the pressure of finding social contacts and job opportunities.  Their reason for choosing Vassar was apparently because “Vassar seemed to be the perfect combination of social and scholastic activities.”     The Miscellany News
As a part of the Student Lecture Series, Indian demographer and economist Dr. Sripati Chandrasekhar, editor of Population Review, delivered a talk entitled “Communist China and Free India.”
The Vassar College Art Gallery opened after an extensive renovation and the installation of air conditioning.  Paintings and drawings by 18th-century French landscape painter, decorator, garden designer and museum curator Hubert Robert were on display as the first major loan exhibition of the 1962-63 season.
Dr. Dietrich Goldschmidt, leader of the Aktion Suehnezeichen (the "Repentance Action Committee") and professor of sociology at the Pedagogische Hochschule in West Berlin, gave two lectures, on "Anti-Semitism in Germany" and on “The Impact of the Past on the Situation in Germany.”  The Repentance Action Committee strove for decades to help Germans atone for the crimes of the Nazis.
Thorton Wilder’s comedy, The Matchmaker, starring film actress Sylvia Sidney, played at Vassar for the college community, sponsored by the New York Sate Council on the Arts.
In the Aula, Assistant to the President Dr. Florence Wislocki M.D. prefaced a panel for freshmen on sexual issues by noting that the meeting was meant  to “supply facts” and not to “condone or condemn.”  Freshmen were told that they themselves were responsible for crafting and upholding their individual philosophies and moral standards.  The faculty panel answered questions about sterility, chastity, homosexuality and menopause.  A bibliography compiled for the freshmen was distributed at this event.     The Miscellany News
The Vassar Inter-Club council sponsored "A dialogue on the Vatican Council." The guest speakers were the Jesuit historian Rev. James Hennesey S.J. and Southern Methodist University theology professor Dr. Rev. Albert C. Outler.
An interdepartmental and interclass Renaissance Seminar had its first meeting. The seminar met every two weeks thereafter.  It was an experimental project that its planners hoped would “demonstrate what can be achieved through interdisciplinary cooperation.”     The Miscellany News
Dr. Jack Luin Hough, professor of geology at the University of Illinois, was the guest lecturer at the Vassar College Sigma XI club. He lectured on "The Prehistoric Great Lakes of North America."
The board of trustees discussed the controversial bequest of Sally Baker Stanton ’97, who left to Vassar $200,000 in her will, to be used as a scholarship fund for white girls from Tarboro and Edgecombe County, NC.   After much deliberation the board authorized rejection of the gift. They also gave permission to the college to start legal proceedings to eliminate the fund's restriction.

In a nation-wide television announcement on all major networks President Kennedy revealed the discovery of Soviet medium range ballistic missiles in Cuba.  He announced an immediate quarantine of the island republic and an unequivocal policy about the missiles:


“It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack on the United States, requiring full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.”


In the next two days, the Peoples’ Republic of China proclaimed that 650,000 Chinese men and women supported the Cuban people, and the Russian Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced the blockade as “aggression” and said that it would be ignored.
After a tense week of threats, feints and negotiations, during which much of the world thought that war—perhaps nuclear war—would result, the Soviet government agreed to remove the armaments from Cuba in exchange for the withdrawal of United States missile from Italy and Turkey.

The Vassar College touch football team played a game against Sienna College, an all male college located in Loudonville, New York. Sienna's eight men defeated Vassar's eleven women, 14 to 6.
The New York Times covered the game:


“Game gets off to thrilling start as Vassar’s quarterback Betsey (Wily) Wilbur kicks off…  Ball rises approximately three and one-half feet.  Strategy so baffles opposition that it allows ball to roll almost to its own goal line….
“Four minutes after play begins, Siena scores first touchdown on pass interception.  Two point safety follows as Vassar downs ball behind own goal line.
“Vassar regains ball.  Quarterback fades back for hand-off to fullback, Priscilla (Whammo) Weston.  They bump heads, fall stunned to the ground.  No gain….”


Vassar’s touchdown came in the third quarter, partly as a result of quarterback Wilbur’s “devious piece of feminine strategy,” having to do with the sock, worn in the Vassar players’ right back pockets, the article to be “touched,” signifying a tackle.


“She transferred her sock from her right back pocket…to her left back pocket and darted 30 yards amid shrieks from her schoolmates.  On the way she caromed off a small, sickly weeping beech planted by the class of ’63.
“As dusk settled over the playing field of Vassar someone observed that the game seemed a little long.
“’I don’t think anyone’s keeping time,’ said a substitute on the sidelines.”     The New York Times

The National Civil Defense Agency, through the Army Corps of Engineers, conducted a survey of college buildings to determine appropriate spaces for nuclear fallout shelters.  Soon after, signs denoting shelter spaces appeared around campus.  The college’s general manager, Louis Brega observed, “Apparently because of the advanced state of our civilization, fallout shelters have become a safety requirement.  The college, therefore, feels that it has an obligation to make every effort to provide suitable shelter areas as a part of our overall safety program.”
President Blanding, although ambivalent about the necessity of such shelters, postulated that the signs "might do some psychological good.'" The designated areas included certain sections—usually basements—of residence halls, Main Building, the Library, all academic buildings, the infirmary, the Boiler House and Alumnae House.     The Miscellany News  
The trustees unanimously authorized re-entry into the National Defense Loan Program due to the recent elimination of the controversial clause requiring students to disclaim subversive ties. Most of the 32 colleges and universities who had withdrawn two years ago also reversed their stands in light of the revised bill.
Some students felt that “the differences between the old and new acts, like revised editions of textbooks used in elementary survey courses, are substantively nil.” The 1958 Act required that students sign an affidavit affirming their general loyalty to the Constitution and willingness to support it “against all its enemies, foreign and domestic,” and to foreswear membership in or support of any organization advocating the overthrow of the United States Government.  The 1962 Act still required the affirmation of general allegiance to the Constitution and willingness to support it against international and foreign enemies; it also required the student to foreswear membership in any Communist organization as defined by the Subversive Activities Control Board.”
As a result, a student said, “we eagerly seized this opportunity to save face, but in doing so we have lost the issue for which we fought in ’59 and ’60….  Vassar College’s academic freedom is not now threatened by the National Defense Education Act…  But the fact remains that Vassar College, having given its students the right to exercise their individual consciences, has and continues to participate in a program in which in principle it disapproves”     The Miscellany News 
Work of prominent Hudson River School artists was exhibited in the art gallery, sponsored by the New York State Council on the Arts and circulated by the American Federation of Arts.  Among the artists represented were Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, George Inness, Sr. ,  John Frederick Kensett, Frederick Church, Albert Bierstadt.
A group of seniors found Guy Fawkes hiding in President Blanding’s cellar poised to set fire to the house.  Thereafter, “crowds of students…pushed into the President’s home.  With a trumpet, waste baskets, cap guns, and other noisemakers, the group ran through the house shouting ‘Let’s save Sarah, Get Guy Fawkes.” After Mr. Fawkes was discovered, Miss Blanding shouted, “Shouldn’t we try him? Shouldn’t we hang him?” Miss Blanding then rewarded her noble rescuers with cookies.     The Miscellany News
Dr. Mary Steichen Calderone ‘25, public health advocate and pioneer in sex education, was the guest speaker, along with two other doctors, at a second panel for freshmen on sexual issues, in the Aula. Dr. Calderone told the 18 freshmen in attendance that she didn’t disapprove of pre-marital intercourse, but neither could she approve it.  She concluded that “Society has abdicated the responsibility for this, so the responsibility must now be with the individual. “  The speakers acknowledged that all young women would be faced with their own personal decision, but urged them not to leave it until the moment of decision to form their individual moral codes.      The Miscellany News
Eleanor Roosevelt, a friend of the college for many years, died in New York City after a long illness.  Both with her husband—a Vassar trustee, active and honorary, from 1923 until his death in 1945—and by herself, Mrs. Roosevelt attended and frequently took part in campus events, and she often invited students and faculty to her home in Hyde Park. 
At her death, President Kennedy said, “The United States, the United Nations, the world, has lost one of its great citizens.  Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt is dead, and a cherished friend of all mankind is gone.”  Sarah Gibson Blanding wrote, “Vassar College is deeply indebted to this great woman who gave so generously of herself to generations of students. She will be missed but, like her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, she has achieved immortality.”
A pioneer in the field of combinatorics, Dr. H. J. Ryser, professor of mathematics at Syracuse University, spoke to students about the matrices of zeros and ones and later gave a lecture on combinatorial mathematics.  He came to Vassar on A Visiting Lectureship Program administered by the Mathematics Association of American and supported by the National Science Foundation.
Professor H. D. F. Kitto, British classicist and professor at the University of Bristol, gave the 1962 Helen Kenyon Lecture, entitled "Greek and Shakespearean Historical Tragedy."
The Aeolian Chamber Players performed a concert of 20th century chamber music. Performing were the group’s founder, Lewis Kaplan, violin; Harold Jones, flute; Robert Listckin, clarinet and Gilbert Kalish, piano.
Mark Van Doren, scholar, Pulitzer Prize-wining poet and professor of English at Columbia University, gave a reading and spoke about his poetry as part of the Student Lecture Series.
English Art historian Miss Helen Lowenthal, co-founder of the Attingham summer school for the study of British country houses, lectured on “The Design of the English Garden in the Eighteenth Century.”
Julia McGrew, assistant professor in the department of English, gave a lecture about the Icelandic sagas entitled “Poets and Warriors.”
Carl B. Swisher, professor of political science at Johns Hopkins University and specialist in American constitutional law and the Supreme Court, lectured on "The Supreme Court in its Modern Role." Swisher was Special Assistant to the Attorney General of the United States in 1936-38.
Civil libertarian Dr. Homer A. Jack, executive director of the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, spoke at Vassar about "The Problem of Fall Out Shelters."  A former Unitarian minister in Evanston, IL, Jack had attended the Geneva Disarmament Conference. Emphasizing the urgency of action on nuclear disarmament, Dr. Jack told of his recent interview with pacifist philosopher Dr. Albert Schweitzer, who, in 1958, "indicated that those who care must 'bark out' against atomic testing and nuclear war. In this recent interview, he said it was no longer suffiicient to just 'bark out' like dogs in the African night; we must 'bite out.' It is not enough to cry out about the imposing threat; we must act."     The Miscellany News
Robert F. Goheen, 16th president of Princeton University, delivered a lecture entitled “Liberal Education:  A Plea for Reason” under the auspices of the Vassar College Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. He was a classicist who posited, “It is important for this country that Princeton and our other great liberal arts institutions should continue to be strong centers of individualized education.“    
President Goheen’s wife was Margaret Skelly Goheen ’41, and his daughter Anne was a member of the Class of 1963.     The Miscellany News
Dr. Ellis Waterhouse, director of the Barber Institute of Art, University of Birmingham, England, gave the 1962 Dorothy Rice Marks Memorial lecture on "Sir Joshua Reynolds."
Vivian Liebman Cadden '38, senior editor of Redbook Magazine, spoke on "The Role of Independent School in Education."
Percy Dale East, editor and publisher of The Petal Paper, Petal, MS, spoke “On the Attainment of Distinction.”  A former editor of two union papers in Hattiesburg, MS, East founded his newspaper in 1953.  Violent local reaction to the 1954 Supreme Court desegregation decision caused East to devote his paper and the rest of his life to the belief that African Americans must receive fair treatment and legal equality. 

At the beginning of his remarks at Vassar—a version of an essay published in Harper’s Magazine in 1959—East noted his recent review of Black Like Me (1961) “by a close friend whom I admire and respect, John Howard Griffin.  I gave the book a good review, which, in my opinion, it deserved.

“After publication of my review, I had a few letters from readers around the country; they were kind letters, on the whole.  However, there was one letter from Jackson, Mississippi, written by a lady there.  Along with other things, she wrote: (and I’m quoting) ‘Mr. East, you’re a traitor, a disgrace to your state, your family, and to yourself.  Any native Mississippian who’d write as you did about that book is—is nothing but an S. O. B.’

“I’ve had a few such letters before, but never once did I answer them; however, this time I broke my rule and replied to the lady.  I began by saying: ‘Dear Mother:’

She hasn’t answered—not yet.”

Turning to his subject, distinction, East cited himself as an example of its attainment:

“My claim to distinction, actually, is two-fold.  First, I own a weekly newspaper in the village of Petal, located two miles from the town of Hattiesburg, in Forrest County, Mississippi….  My newspaper has the lowest per capita circulation of any in the world.  I confess to an abounding ignorance of arithmetic, but I think in dealing with material objects the lowest count is zero.  And zero is the number which represents my circulation in the area (whose claim to distinction is, as proud Petalite[s] will tell you, that it is ‘the largest unincorporated town in the country.’)  Second, my paper is…the only one in the nation with an unlisted telephone number.  I wish to point out that to reduce a local circulation from 2,300 to zero in only five years requires a certain ability and constant effort….  Frankly, you’ve got to work at it full time—and a ringing telephone is distracting….

“The secret of my early taste of success was relatively simply.  I had reached a startling conclusion: that Negroes were, after all, people….  I reached that conclusion from reading the Constitution of the United States, and especially the amendments to it, which impressed me, and wouldn’t turn loose from my memory.”

East’s enumerated editorial “distinctions”—suggesting substitution of the backward-scuttling crawfish for the magnolia as a state symbol, supporting the candidacy of “Cornpone P. Neanderthal” against Mississippi’s iconic segregationist Senator James Eastland, average local sales of his memoir, The Magnolia Jungle: The Life, Times and Education of a Southern Editor (1960), of “one-half book a month”—alongside his accounts of the threats directed at him, his wife and his 10-year-old daughter, culminated in declarations:

“There is no place in the nation for slavery, be it economic, political, religious, or in any other form….  When men are denied their liberties guaranteed by the law of the land, that constitutes a form of slavery.   And when and where one slave exists, it is a paradox, perhaps, but you’ll find two slaves, for whomsoever would keep a man down must stay down with him.

“In simple economic terms, we, as a Nation, as individuals, cannot afford to deny our freedom, our liberty to all men….

“For, in the final analysis, from my point of view, freedom is the only distinction worth attaining.”

Although the paper had no local advertisers or subscribers, a “P. D. East Committee,” formed in New York in 1959, subscribers in all 50 states and six European countries and his lecture fees helped The Petal Paper to appear as a weekly until East’s death in 1971.     The University of Southern Mississippi Digital Collections

Dr. Frank D. Drake, associate astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, spoke on “Intelligent Life in the Universe.” He suggested, supporting his claim with a mathematical equation, that contact with other planets would be possible within 30 years.
John Plank, professor at the Fletcher School of International Law and Diplomacy at Tufts and special assistant to President Kennedy, spoke on “The Inter- American System: Ideals and Realities” in the Aula.  In his lecture, he explored the implications of the Cuban crisis and weaknesses in the US relationship with Latin America.
The Julliard String Quartet presented a concert, sponsored by the Dutchess County Musical Association.
Singer, actress, and human rights activist Odetta gave a concert.  Often remembered as “the voice of the Civil Rights Movement,” she was called by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., “the Queen of American Folk Music.”
The Vassar Glee Club, directed by Albert Van Ackere, and the Franklin and Marshall College Glee Club, under the direction of Hugh Alan Cault, performed in a joint concert at Vassar.
Lithuanian-born scholar and philosopher Harry A. Wolfson, Nathan Litauer Professor Emeritus of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy at Harvard, spoke in Skinner Hall on “How Impious Philosophies Were Made Religiously Respectable.”
Dr. Marian Dobrosielski, counselor of the embassy of the Polish People’s Republic in Washington, D.C., visited political science courses during the day and spoke in the evening on “Berlin and Germany as Cold War Issues.” The lecture was followed by a general discussion period. Dobrosielski held several diplomatic positions in Europe and America, including that of Polish delegate to the United Nations General Assembly.
Famed modern dancer Charles Weidman taught a master class.  Associated with Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey, he was distinctively famous for deriving movement from pantomime.
Claude and Marianne Monteux, flutists, and Homer Pearson, pianist and harpsichordist, gave a concert in Skinner featuring 18th century composers.  Mr. Monteux was a member of the Vassar music faculty and conductor of the Hudson Valley Philharmonic Orchestra.  Mr. Pearson was a professor of music and chairman of the department at Vassar.
The Vassar College Experimental Theater presented August Strindberg's comedy "Crimes and Crimes."
The state Legislative Advisory Committee, of which President Sarah Gibson Blanding was a member, announced that they had voted six to three against raising the minimum drinking age from 18 to 21 in the New York State.  Miss Blanding, who was opposed to raising the drinking age, said she was "fearful that to increase the minimum age for legal purchase of alcoholic beverages in New York would only compound the problems that presently exist in this age group."
Specializing in items about the faculty, staff and their families, a newspaper, The Weekly Reporter, appeared on campus. The journal was written, edited and published by children of the faculty.
Four hundred South Vietnamese soldier and four American advisors were killed in an attack by Viet Cong and local guerillas at Ap Bac, Vietnam.
At the second convocation of the school-year, President Blanding expressed disappointment with the students who cut class excessively and didn’t take their academic duties seriously, calling them “a menace to other students.”     The New York Times

Helen and Karl Ulrich Schnabel gave a four-hand one-piano recital in Skinner Hall. An anonymous review in The Miscellany News, began with an admission. "It is very difficult to write a review in praise of perfection; one runs out of superlatives...." The recital, the reviewer said "came closer to perfection than any recital we have heard this year. The duo created a rare balance of teture and mood which remained unbroken throughout the program. They achieved a sheer transparency of sound, at once the most important and the most difficult requisite of four-hand piano music. It is incredibly difficult for two people to play a piece on one piano and be exactly together in timing, phrasing and expression, yet the Schnabels were beautifully together and made of every note a work of art."

The Schnabels' recital—"longer than the printed program"—began with Mozart's Andante and Five Variations for Piano duet, K.501, and Three Legends, in which "Dvorak's characteristic use of American folk melodies was evident. American themes on a quite different level were used in a Little Suite (1960)" by Swedish composer Laci Boldemann. "This piece was a surprise in that it had a real jazz beat and swinging syncopations." The program concluded with Mendelssohn's Allegro Brilliante, op 92, "a work of scintillating viruosity, and one which makes fantastic demands on the performers. Mr. and Mrs. Schnabel met these demands in a stunning and vital performance. But the audience would not let the performers go until they played two encores, by Brahms and Weber."

Karl Ulrich conducted a master class the following day for students of duet piano technique, at which he observed, "In four-hand playing...listening is at least as important as playing the notes." Although they each had distinguished careers as soloists, Karl Ulrich Schnabel, son of legendary pianist Artur Schnabel, often joined his wife, Helen, in one- and two-piano, four-hand concerts.

In response to a proposal by the American Association of University Professors, the trustees voted to make children of full-time faculty member who were admitted to accredited two or four year colleges eligible for college tuition subsidies.
Pianist Robert Guralnick performed in the second concert of the Philharmonic Chamber Music Series.
Baritone Albert Van Ackere, associate professor of music and director of the Glee Club, gave a recital of works by Bach, Fauré, Ravel and Schumann. 
Freshmen in the drama department presented two one act plays, Thornton Wilder’s The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and J.M. Barrie’s Shall we Join the Ladies?  Wilder’s play, along with three others by him, presented by the Yale Dramatic Association and Vassar’s Philaletheis in New Haven in 1931, were the first productions of his dramatic work.  That event also marked the first co-productions between men’s and women’s collegiate drama associations.
Students, members of the music faculty and members of the administration presented a representative selection of Mozart’s work honoring his 207th birthday in a salon-like gathering in Main Parlor.
George Armitage Miller, co-founder of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard University, lectured on "A Psychologist Looks at Language."
Carl N. Degler, professor of history, spoke on “Political Parties and the Rise of the City, 1877-1934” as a part of the Vassar Scholars’ Lecture series. 
Scottish-born theologian Dr. John Macquarrie, Professor of Systematic Theology at the Union Theological Seminary, spoke on “Heidegger’s Concept of Death” under the auspices of the Chaplain and the Department of Philosophy.
Peter Countryman, chairman of the Northern Students Movement spoke in the Faculty Parlor. Countryman, a junior at Yale, had left school in 1962 to form the organization, which worked to improve the educational climate for urban minority communities.  College student volunteers were enlisted to hold classes with urban high school students to help prepare them for college.  After his speech, over forty students pledged their participation.
English-born educational radio pioneer Professor Charles Siepmann, chairman of the department of communications at New York University, lectured on "Public Opinion and Propaganda."  A former director of talks and director of planning for the BBC, Siepmann  wrote Television and Education in the United States (1952) for UNESCO, and his TV and Our School Crisis (1958) received the Frank Stanton Award for Meritorious Research on the Media of Mass Communication.

German-born émigré economist Dr. Otto Nathan, lectured at Vassar on "The Economies of Disarmament."  Fleeing Nazi Germany in 1933, Nathan settled briefly at Princeton, where a life-long friendship with physicist and fellow émigré Albert Einstein began.  At Einstein’s death in 1955, he was named sole executor of the Einstein estate and joint trustee of Einstein’s literary property, which he trebled in size and which went, in 1982, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Otto Nathan taught at Vassar from 1942 until 1945.  One of his students, Adele Gabel Bergreen ’44 and her husband, Morris, became close friends of Nathan’s in the 1950s, and he eventually gave them his personal collection of letters, photographs, books and other items belonging to Einstein.  These materials were given to the college by Mrs. Bergreen, and they constitute the Morris and Adele Bergreen Einstein Collection at Vassar College.

Dr. Kai Nielsen, associate professor of philosophy at New York University, spoke at Alumnae House on “Religious Perplexity and Faith.”
Josh White, internationally known folk and blues singer, gave a concert.
William Golding, English author of Lord of the Flies, spoke at Vassar under the auspices of the Vassar Student Lecture Series.
Dr. Emily Brown, emeritus professor of economics, gave a talk on “The Position of the Worker in the Economy of the USSR,” in which she spoke about working conditions in the USSR and the rapidly developing economy.
Robert Armstrong Pratt, professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania, spoke at Vassar on "Jankyn's Book of Wikked Wyves: Medieval Antifeminist Propaganda and Chaucer."
Dr. Arnold Lazarow, professor and chairman of the department of anatomy at the University of Minnesota Medical School in Minneapolis, spoke to Biology courses on “The Fourth Dimension of Anatomy” under the auspices of the physiology department.
The Paul Kuentz Paris Chamber Orchestra performed Vivaldi, Hayden, Boccherini, and Rossini at Skinner Recital Hall under the auspices of the Department of Music.
Faculty members of area elementary schools were guests of honor at the President’s House. Approximately 100 attended the tea, given in recognition of teachers who supervised in the student teaching program at Vassar.
The Vassar G-Stringers appeared at Carnegie Hall in New York City as part of a program called “The Collegiate Sound.” The group was considered one of the top ten collegiate singing groups of the 1962-63 season and primarily featured folk music with guitar accompaniment.
Eight Vassar students who planned to take part in the Northern Students Movement tutorial program met with representatives from teenage clubs to introduce them to the general ideas of the program.  Peter Countryman, the founder of the movement, which recruited student volunteers from some 65 colleges and universities in New England, New York and Pennsylvania to help urban minority students prepare for college, spoke at Vassar in February.
The Department of Drama presented an open class exercise entitled “An Album of Period Comedy,” consisting of a series of scenes performed in costume from the time of Shakespeare, the Restoration, and the Victorian age. Veteran actor Dorothy Sands, a participant in the visiting artists program, directed the event. 
President Blanding gave a second tea for 56 secondary school teachers from the area to honor their continued support of the Vassar teaching program.
David M. Schimmel, a member of the Peace Corps Washington staff, spoke and answered students’ questions about the corps.  Afterwards, he reflected, “The thing that struck me was that so many Vassar girls are self-conscious about being liberal arts students.  They tend to be unaware of all the skills they do possess, and talent they do have.  Many of them have just the qualities we’re interested in, but never would think of the Peace Corps as a possibility for themselves.  Its the qualities we’re interested in, not the majors.”      The Miscellany News
The student and faculty curriculum committees held their annual joint meeting.  They discussed independent study, graduate school requirements, and the possibility of extending the hours of the library.
In cooperation with the field work office, 28 students from ten departments and six faculty members from the art, history, and Italian departments traveled in Italy during a two week "Renaissance Vacation." Received by the United States ambassador, G. Frederick Reinhardt, at his home, Villa Taverna, in Rome, the group also visited Florence, Perugia, Assisi and Sienna.  Members of the History, Art Italian faculties and student participates worked out the itinerary in cooperation with the Vassar Field Work Office.  The students did not receive credit, as the tour was intended to extend and augment classroom experience.
Dr. A. L. Rowse, fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, lectured on "The Personality of Elizabeth I."

Forty-two 16th, 17th and 18th century Italian drawings from the collection of Mrs. Richard Krautheimer, were shown at the Vassar Art Gallery. The drawings on display, most of which had been acquired in the last six years, included works by Domenico Tintoretto, Guercino, Annibale Carracci and Girolamo Brusaferro.

Dr. Trude Krautheimer-Hess, the wife of the eminent art and architectural historian Richard Krautheimer and herself a noted scholar and collector of Italian Renaissance master drawings, spoke about the exhibit on April 18, in the Art Gallery.  Her husband, who taught at Vassar between 1937 and 1952, was a visiting scholar in Vassar's art department during the 1962-63 academic year. The couple published Lorenzo Ghiberti, a study of the 15th century Florentine master, in 1956.     The Miscellany News

Dr. Hermann von Baravalle, mathematician, educator and author, lectured on "Dynamic Beauty of Geometric Forms."  A teacher of mathematics in Rudolf Steiner’s Stuttgart Waldorf School for many years, starting in 1938 von Baravalle was instrumental in the establishment of the Waldorf Schools in the United States.
Professor Leonard Machlis, chairman of the department of botany at the University of California at Berkeley, gave a the Helen Putnam Gates Lecture on "Fertilization Insurance in Plants."
Dr. Matthijs Jolles, professor of German literature at Cornell University, lectured on "Gott Natur und Mensch in Goethe’s Faust."
Writer on contemporary Russian literature and lecturer at Brooklyn College Vyacheslav K. Zavalishin, spoke on Solzhenitzyn’s book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.  A former member of the New York Program Section of “Radio Liberation,” the Russian radio service sponsored by the Central Intelligence Agency, Zavalishin gave his talk in Russian in Chicago Hall, under the auspices of the Russian department.
Dr. Edward V. Sayre of the Brookhaven National Laboratory presented the first in a series of four lectures entitled “Clio in the Laboratory.”  A pioneer in the use of neutron activation analysis to identify the source materials of archeological glass, Dr. Sayre entitled his lecture “Nuclear Technology in Archaeology.”
Alvin H. Hansen, emeritus professor of economics at Harvard University, former economic advisor to the State Department and current faculty member at the University of Michigan, gave the Martin H. Crego Lecture, “The Changing Structure of the American Economy,” in Blodgett Auditorium. The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego ’32, in honor of her father, sponsored an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department.
E-Tu-Zen-sun '44, Katherine Strelsky, of Vassar's Russian Department and Ruth Stone, assistant professor of English from 1953-1959, were among 17 appointed members of the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study for 1963-63.
Martin Luther King, Jr., was arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, AL.  During his detention he wrote the famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail” declaring the moral duty of individuals to disobey unjust laws.
Dr. Robert Magidoff, chair of the New York University Slavic program, lectured at Vassar on Boris Pasternak and Doctor Zhivago.
Morris B. Abram, New York attorney, and first legal counsel to President Kennedy’s Peace Corps, spoke at Vassar on "Reapportionment: The New Civil Right."   A Georgia-born lifelong opponent of segregation and civil rights activist, Abram served successive presidents in investigative and advisory positions.
British-born American poet Denise Levertov, author of The Jacob's Ladder (1961), gave a reading of her work.
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, under-secretary for special political affairs in the United Nations, spoke on "Inside Views of the United Nations," under the auspices of the Vassar College Student Lecture Series.
Professor Charles Griffin, chairman of the history department, attended a symposium at the University of Bordeaux, France, on “The History of Twentieth Century Latin America.”  The only American scholar attending, Professor Griffin said that the gathering, including English, Swedish, French scholars as well as those from 12 Latin American countries, was “an example of international intellectual cooperation.”  Griffin contributed a paper on the relative advantages of regional and national history for understanding contemporary Latin America to the conference, whose purpose, he said, was “to see the general trends of the period and to see how far one can talk about the area as a whole.”  He reported “a great deal of frankness by the Latin Americans about their own governments.  The tradition has been to keep away from recent history.  This willingness to deal with recent events is a new departure.”     The Miscellany News

The Seven College Conference announced that the seven women’s colleges had sent 4,489 letters of acceptance into the classes of 1967, from which they expected about 2,760 new students to enroll.  11,116 completed applications were received.

Under the Early Decision Plan, 644 of the candidates had been notified the previous fall that they would be accepted.  The percentage of new students accepted under this plan—which both allowed colleges to avoid the confusion of multiple applications and spared applicants months of anxiety about their futures—rose from 18 percent in 1961 to 23.3 percent in 1963.

Vassar’s admission director, Jean L. Harry ’33, who released the 1963-64 figures for the conference, noted that a major factor in determining the size of the freshmen classes was the number of upperclassmen who planned to return.  “All seven of the colleges,” she said, “have noted with gratification that there has been a steady increase in the number of young women who complete four years of study and earn degrees.”

The accepted classes continued to draw from broader applicant bases.  Barbara Clough, admission director at Wellesley, noted “the increasing number of applications from students in schools not previously known to Wellesley.  In 1963, as in 1962, we had candidates from more than 230 schools new to us.”  Jane Sehmann, director at Smith, observed that the college had seen in the last five years and increase of 200 in the public schools represented in the applications.     The New York Times

Hugo Buchthal, professor of Byzantine art at the University of London’s Warburg Institute, lectured on "The Miniatures of the Vatican Virgil Manuscripts."  The Vatican Virgil (Vergillus Vaticanus), an early 5th century illustrated manuscript containing fragments of Virgil’s Aeneid and Georgics, is the oldest surviving source of Virgilian texts.
K. Shantha Rama Rao, Indian educator, social worker, and writer, gave the Martin H. Crego Lecture on "Education and Caste in India." The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego ’32, in honor of her father, sponsored an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department.

An all-senior cast presented the Senior Class Play, “My Hero!” in Skinner Hall as a benefit performance for the construction of a recreational center in Guinea, a project inspired by Operations Crossroads Africa.  In the audience for the performance were Mme. Telli Diallo, wife of the Guinean ambassador to the United States, Mme. and M.  Achar Maroff, members of the Guinean delegation of the Untied Nations and the Rev. James H. Robinson, founder, chairman and director of Operation Crossroads Africa, and former speaker at Vassar.  The play was  “a takeoff on nineteenth century melodrama.”

The seniors presented the play again, in aid of Crossroads Africa, in Skinner Hall on May 31.     The Miscellany News

Mid-Hudson Airlines treated representatives of The Miscellany News to a 20-minute ride in a four-seat Cessna airplane.  Pilot Steve Richardson circled the Cessna over the campus.  “From a vantage point of 1,600 feet,” wrote a reporter,  “Vassar College looks like a group of toy buildings in a child’s model train set.”

The Dutchess County Airport offered regularly schedule flights, flying lessons at $15 an hour, charter service and limousine service.

The Vassar College Choir and the Princeton University Chapel Choir, under the direction of Donald Pearson, gave a concert of sacred choral music.
Leon Edel, professor of English at New York University, lectured on "Some Aspects of Henry James." Edel’s five-volume biography of the Amercan novelist, Henry James: A Biography (1955-72), earned a National Book Award in 1962 and a Pulitzer Prize in 1963.
Dr. Salvador E. Luria, microbiologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, gave a three-day seminar at Marist, Vassar, and Dutchess Community College. On April 29th, he spoke at Marist on "Macromolecular Aspects of Biology." On April 30th, at Vassar, the topic of his lecture was "Genes and Viruses." On May 1st he lectured at Dutchess Community College on "Viruses and Abnormal Cell Functions."
The Vassar College Orchestra, conducted by Boris Koutzen, assisted by Claude Monteux, gave a concert in honor of Vassar's retiring faculty.
Betty Friedan, feminist and author of The Feminine Mystique (1963), spoke on "The Feminine Mystique."  Friedan co-founded the National Organization for Women in 1966 and was its first president.
The Vassar Experimental Theater performed Thornton Wilder's The Skin of Our Teeth.
The Vassar College Glee Club, directed by Albert Van Ackere, and the William's Glee Club, directed by Robert Barrow, gave a concert at Vassar College.
"The Umbra Poets," a group of young black poets, presented selections of their writing in the Students’ Building.  The poetry dealt with "aspects of social and racial reality," and was sponsored by the OPA. The group took its name from Umbra, a literary magazine that first appeared the preceeding winter presenting "the experience of being a negro, especially in America" and hoping to arouse "that quality of human awareness often termed ‘social consciousness’. "     The Miscellany News
At Commencement exercises for the Class of 1963, of which his daughter Anne was a member, Robert F. Goheen, the president of Princeton University, urged the 324 graduates to recognize that being liberally educated allowed and obliged them to take a long view of history and to “orient to the highest values of our culture and cultivate an attitude of relative detachment.”

John Wilkie, chairman of the board of trustees, announced that gifts to the college for the year totaled over $2 million.     The New York Times

The college announced that British-born historian Alan Simpson would succeed Sarah Gibson Blanding on July 1, 1964, when she retired from the presidency of Vassar.   John Wilkie, chairman of the board of trustees, said the board endorsed Mr. Simpson‘s nomination by a committee of five trustees and five faculty members “enthusiastically and unanimously” at its meeting on June 19.  Simpson, Mr. Wilkie said, was elected “with complete confidence in his profound concern with and dedication to the further enhancement of Vassar’s distinction in the world of education.”  President Blanding greeted her successor’s selection, noting that he “has proved himself to be one of the outstanding educators in the country and ideally qualified to head a great college.”

Educated at Oxford, Simpson studied at Harvard as a Commonwealth Fellow from 1935 to 1937.  After eight years as senior lecturer in modern British history at the University of Saint Andrews in Scotland, he joined the history faculty of the University of Chicago in 1946.  Mr. Simpson served as the dean of the Undergraduate College of the University of Chicago from 1946 until 1964.

In a statement, Alan Simpson said, “It is a great honor to be invited to be president of Vassar College.  I have the warmest admiration for its trustees, faculty, students and alumnae.  By combining a firm grasp of established standards of excellence with a vigorous readiness for constructive change, its future will be as distinguished as its past.”     The New York Times

The University Russian Club, a group formed by Yale, Harvard, Columbia and Vassar students to further understanding of Soviet life, organized a trip to the Soviet Union.  The participants met with Soviet students, teachers and workers and visited Russian homes, factories, museums, churches, monasteries and a collective farm. 
The annual chemistry program for fifteen advanced high school students, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, was given at Vassar.
An intensive six-week Russian program sponsored by the State Education Department began on this date.
The International Summer School of the Nursery School Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was held at Vassar, the first meeting in the United States in the school’s 8-year history.  The keynote address on "Freedom and Education" was given R. W. Ferguson, chairman of the nursery school association. A series of seminars were held on early childhood education, focusing on themes such as "Rearing children of Good Will" and "Teaching the Creative Arts." In addition to the seminars, the summer school included general lectures, panel discussions and educational films and plays.
Former Republican Senator from Massachusetts, United States Ambassador to the United Nations and—in 1960—unsuccessful vice presidential candidate Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., took up his new post as United States Ambassador to South Vietnam.
The Group, Mary McCarthy’s novel about the lives of eight members of the Class of 1933, appeared from Harcourt, Brace & World.  A few weeks earlier, in anticipation of the book’s release, The New York Times had observed, “One of the girls in the novel, unlike the others, comes from the Far West.  Miss McCarthy was born in Seattle.  Further identification of the characters must wait on publication of the book.”
Some 200,000 people joined the “March on Washington,” gathering at the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. Martin Luther King’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech.
President Blanding joined presidents and deans from 34 major colleges and universities in 21 states in urging the Senate to ratify a nuclear test ban treaty.  On September 24, the Senate ratified the partial test ban treaty by a vote of 80 to 19, and President Kennedy signed the treaty on October 7.
A bombing of a Baptist church in Birmingham, AL, killed four young African American girls attending Sunday school.  Four more black youths died in the ensuing rioting.
Dr. Mary Calderone '25, director of Planned Parenthood Federation of America lectured on "Introduction to Sex Patterns." "She urged the students to not 'rush into womanhood, but let nature take it's course,'" The Miscellany News  reported.  "Girls,” Dr. Calderone advised, “keep your affections wrapped in cotton until Mr. Right comes along."
A symposium conducted by the symposium committee of the 175th  anniversary of New York State’s ratification of the Federal Constitution in Poughkeepsie was held at Vassar.
The Student Madrigal Choir of Muenster, West Germany, under the direction of Frau Herma Kramm, performed in the Vassar College Chapel.
Daniel S. Lehrman, professor of psychology at Rutgers University, lectured on "Psychosomatic Influences in the Reproduction Cycles of Animals."

Vassar students began what The New York Times called their "own version of the Peace Corps," an after-school tutoring program called "Horizons Unlimited."  Coordinated by Patricia Blumenthal ’64 and Joan Leven ’66, the program sent 150 student volunteers four days a week to classrooms in four participating elementary schools for hour-long help sessions intended to provide “educational and cultural enrichment” to students identified by their teachers as having "potential for greater achievement."

"It does reduce," Blumenthal admitted, "the amount of time available for keeping up with our own studies.  But, in a world where so much needs to be done, an experiment like 'Horizons Unlimited' also gives us a purpose and an opportunity for fulfillment."     The New York Times

Countess Alexandra Lvovna Tolstoy, youngest daughter of Leo Tolstoy, lectured on "The Life and Philosophy of Tolstoy." Born in 1884, she was her father’s secretary at the end of his life.  Imprisoned briefly after the 1917 revolution by the Bolsheviks, she came to the United States in 1929 and, in 1939, founded the Tolstoy Foundation.
An informational program on civil rights was held in the Aula, sponsored by the Vassar Committee for Civil Rights.  Speakers at the meeting included Lee Webb, national secretary for Students for a Democratic Society; Dennis Schecter, northern student vice president of the National Student Association; Arthur Gorson, chairman of Campus Americans for Democratic Action and Jim Monson, field secretary for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. 26 local colleges and high schools were invited to send representatives to this event.
The Vassar Experimental Theater presented Ingmar Bergman's Smiles of a Summer's Night.
A day after a successful coup d’état, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Nhu Dinh Diem were murdered.  North Vietnamese president Ho Chi Minh was reported to have said, "I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid."
Several student members of the Vassar Committee for Civil Rights went to the polls on election day and collected contributions that were sent to the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee to aid voter registration in the South.
The college and the New York State Council on the Arts sponsored a concert of Elizabethan music by the New York Pro Musica in honor of William Shakespeare's 400th birthday.
The first chief of the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress, Lewis Hanke, professor of history at Columbia University, lectured at Vassar on "The Life and Works of Bartolomé de Las Casas." A pioneer in Latin American history, Hanke advanced the notion that Bartolomé, the 16th century Bishop of Chiapas, led a reform movement to resist the abuse of indigenous people by Spanish colonists.
Dr. Kenneth B. Clark, professor of psychology at the College of the City of New York, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Lecture on "Personality and Prejudice." The first African American president of the American Psychological Association, Clark, and his wife founded Harlem Your Opportunities Unlimited in 1962.
President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
Vassar canceled classes. President Lyndon B. Johnson declared this day a National Day of Mourning for President John F. Kennedy and his family.
Evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky, professor of genetics at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City spoke at Vassar on "Genetics and Equality."
Vassar College, along with Dutchess Community College, Marist College and the State University College at New Paltz, sponsored a New Civil Rights Symposium on "The Negro Revolt: Contemporary Attitudes and Pressures." Several issues were discussed at the symposium including "The Church in the civil rights movement; the possibility of achieving complete ‘civil rights’ under our present economic and political system and the influence of the present racial crisis in America's international image."      The Miscellany News
Christine Mitchell Havelock, associate professor of art, gave a Vassar Scholar's Lecture on "The Goddess Athena as Emblem of Athens."
The Vassar College Glee Club, directed by Albert van Ackere, performed in a joint concert with the Union College Glee Club, directed by Hugh Allen Wilson.
A bongo group led by Nigerian-born G. Godwin Oywole from the State University of New Paltz, gave a concert.
Members of the German Club presented a German Medieval nativity play, "Ein Deutsches Weihnachtsspiel," in the Vassar College Chapel.
16,300 American military advisors were present in South Vietnam, and the year’s cost for their support was $500 million.
Façade—An Entertainment, poems by Dame Edith Sitwell recited to music by Sir William Walton, was performed by the Philharmonic Chamber Music Ensemble. Frank Baker, director of voice studies at Bennington College, recited the poetry.
Vassar College, along with IBM Poughkeepsie and the New York State Education Department, conducted an institute in computer mathematics for high school mathematics teachers.
Polly Middleton and Hugette van Ackere gave a piano recital at Vassar College.
Carole Merritt '62 and other members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) were arrested while working on a voter registration drive in Canton, Mississippi. President Blanding stated the college "cannot take an official stand on this issue" since "we have people in this college that are not in favor of integration." The President also commented that the administration will "strongly support any member of the community that speaks out on this situation."    The Miscellany News   
An affirmative vote in the South Dakota legislature ratifed the 24th Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing the poll tax, originally instituted in 11 Southern states after Reconstruction to suppress the African American vote.
The Vassar College Art Gallery exhibited Prints by Mary Cassatt, a touring exhibit of 30 prints and two prepartory drawings from the Rosenwald Collection of the National Gallery in Washington, DC . The selected works were exhibited at the National Gallery in Washington between June 13 and September 12, 1963.

Carole Merritt ’62, a staff member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), was jailed, along with five other SNCC workers, in Canton, MS.  In all, nearly two dozen members of SNCC and CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) were arrested in Mississippi over a two-week period in late January and early Feburary on charges ranging from conspiring to intimidate a family to publishing libel and burning trash without a permit.  Charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor in connection with a boycott of white merchants, Merritt was fined $500 and sentenced to six months in jail.  

At an emergency meeting on January 27, called by Susan Finnel '66, the chairman of the Vassar Committee on Civil Rights (VCCR), President Blanding stated the college "cannot take an official stand on this issue" since "we have people in this college that are not in favor of integration." The President declared however that Vassar would "strongly support any member of its community who takes a stand sincerely....  I feel so deeply that our students, our faculty, our employees, should all be concerned about these things.  We should do anything we can to better the situation."  At a meeting on January 31, the president advised students about effective measures individuals might take to aid Merritt, including contributions to the legal defense fund of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—specifically designated to aid Miss Merritt, if the donor wished—and letters to senators and congressmen from students' home state favoring the civil rights legislation currently before Congress.

Sponsored by VCCR and addressed to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, a petition with 986 signatures was delivered to Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall, and letters were sent to New York Senator Javits, Mississippi Sentor Eastland and Senators Lausche and Young from Ohio, Merritt's home state. The petition requested a federal investigation into the "harassment, intimidation and arrest" of civil rights workers in Canton. 

Miss Merritt was released on an appeal bond on February 22.  Saying she was "delighted to speak at Vassar," she returned to the campus on May 5 and spoke of her experiences in the South.  Anticipating Merritt's visit, Adraenne Bernstein '65, the Vassar SNCC coordinator said, "I think it will be very beneficial to the Vassar community.  Carole is someone with whom students can identify, yet she has had the kind of experience that is remote to most members of the community.  I hope that the 986 people who signed the petition will attend the meeting to hear her speak."    The Miscellany News, The New York Times

Professors Albert Van Ackere and William Rothwell co-directed the Vassar Experimental Theatre's production of Alessandro Scarlatti's two-act opera The Triumph of Honor (Il trionfo dell'onore, 1718), a joint production of the Vassar music and drama departments in Avery Hall.  Reviewing the production in The Miscellany News,  Susan Lysik '64 found it, if "not quite the triumph of the music and drama departments...certainly a charming and pleasant entertainment."  Noting the lighting by Mary Barlow '64 and the period costumes of Catherine Pawclyn '65, the reviewer concluded, "the directors, cast, designers and entire production staff deserve congratulations for combining their diverse abilities in a charming opera."     The Miscellany News

The Beatles’ first appearance on American television, on the Ed Sullivan Show, was watched widely on campus. "At first ,” reported The Miscellany News, “the girls in the campus audience protested that their interest in the Beatles was historical—they wanted to compare the studio audience reaction to that of the Elvis enthusiasts of a few years ago." But eventually analysis gave way to "unreasoned frenzy." Many students broke the "anti-scream rule," and quarrels started as to who was “the cutest Beatle.”
The Hudson Valley Philharmonic String Quartet honored President Sarah Gibson Blanding with a concert in Skinner Hall. Professor Boris Koutzens's new work, "Poem for Violin Solo and String Quartet," was dedicated to Ms. Blanding.
The Clarion Concerts Orchestra performed the annual Barbara Woods Memorial Concert. Formed in 1957 by musicologist and conductor Newell Jenkins, the Clarion Music Society was the first period-instrument orchestra to offer a regular concert season in New York City. The fund providing the concert was given to the college in 1938 by the Class of 1935, in memory of their classmate, Barbara Woods Morgan, a devoted student of music.
Vassar held an Eighteenth Century Weekend that included exhibitions, lectures, concerts, panel discussion, and an 18th century dinner with costumed waitresses and music from the period.  Speakers included Peter Gay, history professor at Columbia University, who lectured on "The Recovery of Nerve: The social Matrix of the Enlightenment;" Marjorie Hope Nicolson, a member of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton and professor Emeritus of English at Columbia University, who spoke on "Changing Aesthetic Ideals in 18th Century England" and Jan LaRue, professor of Music at New York University spoke at Vassar on the "Emergence of Classicism in Music." A panel discussion on "Comparative Literature" included Professor Nicholson; Dutch-born professor of German at Cornell University Dr. O. J.  Matthijs Jolles and Professor of French language and literature Georges May, Dean of Yale College.
Walter Allen, British novelist, critic and broadcaster, and visiting professor of English for the 1963-1964 academic year, gave the annual Phi Beta Kappa Lecture on "English and American Literature."
The Vassar College Madrigal Group, directed by Albert van Ackere, along with the Yale Madrigal Group, under the direction of Richard McKee, gave a concert in Skinner Hall.
At a Women’s National Press Club dinner in Washington, President Johnson declared, “I want to make a policy statement.  I am unabashedly in favor of women.”  Vowing to end a “stag Government,” he announced the appointment of nine women to Federal posts.  Chief among the appointments was that of Katharine Elkus White ’28 as United States Ambassador to Denmark.  Mrs. White’s father, Abram I. Elkus, served as ambassador to Turkey during President Woodrow Wilson’s presidency.
In honor of William Shakespeare's' 400th birthday the Vassar Experimental Theater presented Shakespeare’s comedy "Pericles, Prince of Tyre, directed by Seabury Quinn Jr., assistant professor of drama.
Defense Secretary McNamara, on a visit to South Vietnam, endorsed the newest South Vietnamese leader, General Nguyen Khanh.  Upon returning to Washington, McNamara, declaring that the prestige and credibility of the United States was at stake in Vietnam, convinced the Johnson administration to increase support—now including secret air strikes in Laos—for the war.

When accepted, his recommendations pushed the cost of American support of the war to $2 million per day.

German-American existentialist theologian Paul Tillich from Union Theological Seminary gave the 1964 Helen Kenyon Lecture on "Grounds for Moral Choice in a Pluralistic Society."
Daniel D. McCracken, president of the McCracken Associates and author of a half-dozen seminal books on computer programming languages, lectured on "The Alliances Between Theory and Practice: A Sketch of Numerical Methods."

Dr. John Rock, professor emeritus of gynecology at Harvard Medical School and director of the Rock Reproduction Clinic, gave the Martin H. Crego Lecture.

The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego ’32, in honor of her father, sponsored an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department.

College physician Dr. Jean Stevenson held a "5 Day Clinic to Stop Smoking" in Chicago Hall. "Since the publication of the Surgeon General's report on cigarette smoking,” she explained, “there is no reasonable doubt on the toxicity of cigarette smoke not only on the lungs, but as a general systemic poison."     The Miscellany News
Representative John V. Lindsay, a Republican from the 17th district of New York, lectured on "The Country and the Congress - Mid-stream."
Poet and critic Professor Madeline Doran from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, spoke on "Shakespeare's Art."   Doran’s approach to Shakespeare, as expressed in her most important work, Endeavors of Art (1954), was the “attempt to reconstruct some part of the context of ideas, assumptions, and predispositions about literary art in which Shakespeare and his fellow English dramatists…must have worked, and to suggest ways in which these things may have helped shape their art.”

On a tour of campuses showing his directorial debut, a feature film called The Young Lovers, Samuel Goldwyn Jr. spoke with students after a showing of the film in Blodgett Hall.  The film intrigued the students, who “especially” liked —according to Eugene Archer, writing in The New York Times—“a scene in which young Sharon Hugueny’s mother returns home unexpectedly to find her daughter’s beau, Peter Fonda, taking his early morning shower.”

Mr. Goldwyn defended his choice of young and unknown actors, although it made finding funding for the film even more difficult.  “Everyone said, get Tony Curtis,” Goldwyn said, “but he isn’t an adolescent.  Where can you find teen-age stars today?”  The students sponsoring the event confided in the young director that they had formed their own company, “Carborundum Films,” and they asked his advice about how they should go about making a film.  “I try to encourage them,” he said, “but I also…try to tell the truth.  Making experimental films in 16-mm., using college friends and faculties in the cast so they’ll have a ready-made audience, is a fine idea.  Then they ask how they can get the film distributed outside their college and make a profit….  I tell them I have exactly the same problem myself.”     The New York Times

At the dedication of the Poughkeepsie Day School building, located on the Vassar campus, President Sarah Gibson Blanding received a scroll in recognition of her support of the school's program.   In her remarks, Katharine Taylor, former director of the Shady Hill School in Cambridge, MA, spoke of the value derived from an affiliation between an elementary school and a college offering teacher education.
Three one-act plays were performed by the students in Drama 105: Aria Da Capo, by Edna St. Vincent Millay ’17; William Butler Yeats's The Land of Heart's Desire and Suddenly Last Summer, by Tennessee Williams.

Scholar of early French Medieval sculpture Willibald Sauerländer, a professor at the University of Freiburg and visitng professor at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, lectured on "The Sculpture of Reims Cathedral," particularly the influence of ancient works on Reims figures of the 1220s and 30s. "In the period between 1220 and 1230," wrote Ann Thomas in The Miscellany News, "sculpture at Reims entered a new phase of influence.  Not only is it closer to the normal Gothic style, as seen in the elevation of the Virgin to a position of prominence in the decorative scheme, but in several instances it bears resemblance to antique prototypes.  Professor Sauerländer feels that, while there was not a wholesale antique revival, a few artists were strongly influenced by studies of antiquity.... Unfortunately, Professor Squerländer in his lecture did not answer the question of how the Reims sculptors came to be influenced by antiquity, and what antique monuments were available for observation."

Professor Sauerländer's Gotische Skulptur in Frankreich (Gothic Sculpture in France, 1970,1971) established him as a leading historian in his field. He became director of the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich, in 1970.

American Composer Walter Piston lectured at Vassar on "Musical Meaning." The lecture was followed by a performance of two of his chamber works.
The Reverend Alexander Schmemann, Dean of St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary in New York City, lectured on "The Faith and Life of the Eastern Orthodox Churches."
Arthur Burrows, baritone; Helen Boatwright, mezzo-soprano; and David Dodds, tenor, gave a concert along with the Vassar College Choir and the Yale University Glee Club, under the direction of Donald M. Pearson.
Betty Churgin, assistant professor of music at Vassar College, gave the third 1963-64 Vassar Scholars' Lecture on "The Music of G. B. Sammartini, a Forgotten 18th Century Master."
The Vassar College Glee Club and Madrigal Group performed a joint concert with the Haverford Glee Club and Madrigal Group.
Poet Galway Kinnell gave a reading of his poetry.
Democratic candidate for Congress, Joseph Resnick, lectured on the topic "My Qualifications for Congressman and Why a Citizen Enters Politics," to the Vassar College Young Democrats.
Dr. Ashley Montagu, British-American anthropologist and social biologist, lectured on "The Responsibilities of Adolescents in a Changing World."
New York State Senator Constance Baker Motley, former associate counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, lectured on "The Present Civil Rights Struggle in the United States," under the auspices of the Student Lecture Series. Mrs. Motley, the first African American woman elected to the New York Senate, wrote the original complaint in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954 and served, in 1962, as counsel for James Meredith, the first African American to enroll in the University of Mississippi.
Civil rights activist Carole Merritt '62, spoke at Vassar under the auspices of the Vassar Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).  A staff member of the national Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Ms. Merritt was jailed along with other protestors in Canton, MS, in February, charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor in connection with a boycott against white merchants.
At a party in her honor, the faculty presented retiring President Blanding with a tractor, including a mower and a snow plow, as a farewell present.  Miss Blanding told her well wishers that she expected to save at least $350 annually doing her own mowing and snowplowing at her home in Lakeville, CT.
Mayors of five Polish cities visited the college, which had. had a long-standing affiliation with Polish scholars.  In 1925, shortly after a lengthy tour of the “new” higher education developing in Eastern Europe after World War I, President Henry Noble MacCracken co-founded the Kosciuszko Foundation, named after the Polish military hero of the Revolutionary War and dedicated to enlarging the cultural and educational exchange between Poland and the United States.

At Commencement, president-elect Alan Simpson told the members of the Class of 1964 and their families and guests that the “brains and energy of women is our most neglected national asset.”  Urging the graduates to claim their rightful places in the professions, Simpson said, “There are countries today in which women play a far more conspicuous part in the national life and national dialogue than they do in ours.  The question in countries like ours is whether you will be content to occupy all the lower-echelon jobs or whether you will be interested in scaling the heights.”

Students, faculty and Mr. Simpson also paid tribute to Sarah Gibson Blanding and her 13 years of service to the college. Mr. Simpson told the graduating class "If I have one last wish for you as you graduate it is that you may have as much gallantry and gaiety, as much pride and as little pomposity, as much capacity for work and enjoyment, as Sarah Blanding. In plain, in heroic magnitude of spirit, she has few equals.”

John Wilkie, chairman of the board of trustees, announced the board's approval of a new faculty housing complex to be built between Raymond and Hooker Avenues.    The New York Times, The Miscellany News

Viet Cong guerilla forces in South Vietnam, numbering nearly 60,000, received support from North Vietnamese Army regulars entering the country on the Ho Chi Minh trail. 
The volunteer tutorial program for Poughkeepsie's elementary students, "Horizons Unlimited," entered its second year with 30 Vassar students tutoring.  As the Johnson administration planned the “War on Poverty,” the newly-established Office of Economic Opportunity requested a film of the Vassar program be made, to be used for orienting and instructing teachers in the national Head Start program, and Associate Professor of Child Study Dorothy Levens and Joseph Stone, professor of child study, were asked to be the educational consultants for the new Federal program.
The third Advanced Summer Chemistry Program for High School Students was offered at Vassar.
President Johnson appointed General Maxwell D. Taylor as United States Ambassador to South Vietnam and Lt. General William C. Westmoreland as U. S. military commander in Vietnam.
Alan Simpson assumed his responsibilities as seventh president of Vassar College.
Twenty Social Studies teachers from New York State high schools attended a 6-week summer program of Latin American Studies.
A Russian Language summer course was offered for elementary and secondary school teachers.
A summer institute for New York State high school teachers of English was offered. Two seminars entitled "Grammar, Composition, and Insight" and "Studies in Literature," were taught by professors from the English department.

In response to purported attacks on American vessels in the Gulf of Tonkin, ten miles off the shore of North Vietnam, United States bombers destroyed oil facilities and naval targets in North Vietnam.  “We Americans know,” President Johnson said in a nationwide telecast, “although others appear to forget, the risk of spreading conflict.  We still seek no wider war.”

Three days later, Congress passed almost unanimously the “Gulf of Tonkin Resolution,” put forth by the White House, allowing the President to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force” against further attacks on U. S. forces.

President Alan Simpson announced that the James Foundation at New York Inc., gave a $500,000 grant to Vassar College, to be used towards general corporate purposes.

Opening Vassar's 100th academic year, its new president, Alan Simpson, gave the address at Fall Convocation.  One of his concerns was with the nature of “style.”  “Style,” he told the students and faculty, “is the form imposed by art on life.  A great deal of life has been and is without style: an aimless scurrying of matter, a dull scratching of itches, a wearisome struggle for survival.  There is obviously no style without leisure, without exposure to good models, without a passion for improvement.

“Style is not a veneer; it is not a dressing; it is not a nice frosting on a poor cake; it is not make-up.  Style has to be built into the motion of the mind by passion and practice.”

A record 1,162 students were enrolled, and the 451 freshmen included women from 21 foreign countries.

French novelist and filmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet, associated with the Nouveau Roman (New Novel) and Nouvelle Vauge (New Wave) movements, lectured on "New Novels and New Films."
Edward Albee's play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? was performed by a professional company in the Students' Building.
The New York String Trio, featuring Gerald Tarack, violin; Harry Zaratzian, viola and Alexander Koguell, cello, performed.
Purchased from the Wappingers Falls Fire Department to replace a 15-year-old vehicle, Vassar's new fire truck was put into service. The fire truck was expected to handle all but the serious fires.
Ahead of Head Start, a film about “Horizons Unlimited,” the Vassar project for underprivileged children of the community, was shown to alumnae at the Alumnae Council’s fall meeting.  The film was made at the request of the Johnson Administration’s new Office of Economic Opportunity.
The Peoples’ Republic of China, with troops massed on the border with Vietnam, tested its first atomic bomb.

Alan Simpson, Oxford-educated historian and former dean of the college at the University of Chicago, was inaugurated as Vassar’s 7th president. Some 4,000 alumnae, faculty, students and guests, including representatives from over 300 American and European colleges and universities and 90 representatives from Alumnae clubs, filled the Outdoor Theater on a perfect Indian summer afternoon, as Mary St. John Villard ’34, chairman of the inaugural committee, introduced the speakers.

Charles C. Griffin, professor of history, brought greetings from the faculty; Katharine E. McBride, president of Bryn Mawr, greeted the new president on behalf of the women’s colleges; Herbert G. Nicholas, professor of American history and Fellow of New College, Oxford, spoke for the European universities; W. Allen Wallis, president of the University of Rochester carried best wishes from American colleges and universities and George Wells Beadle, president of the University of Chicago, spoke on behalf of Mr. Simpson’s former institution.  Also in attendance were Sarah Gibson Blanding, Simpson’s predecessor, and Henry Noble MacCracken, president of the college between 1915 and 1946.

In his remarks, President Simpson, noting Vassar’s “special duty to consider the minds, aptitudes, and goals of women in an age where women everywhere are seeking new directions for their energies,” declared that it also shared with other colleges responsibility for the grand traditions of liberal learning.  “The American university,” he said, “was once a one-story building with a few graduates in the attic.  Today it’s often a one-story building with a lot of undergraduates in the basement.”  The best liberal arts colleges, privileged to focus on providing undergraduates with individual programs and instruction and on offering breadth of knowledge instead of pedantry, “the characteristic vice of scholarship,” bore the responsibility for defending and strengthening these traditions.

The New York Times included some personal notes on Vassar’s new president in its coverage of the event, including his fondness for composing clerihews—four-line biographical verses beginning with the subject’s name; his preference for “Mr.” instead of “Dr.,”arising from his academic upbringing in England, “where members of the faculty do not ‘Doctor’ each other;” his plan to teach an advanced history class on revolutions in 17th century England in the spring term (“I always got great pleasure out of teaching.”) and his anticipation of taking part in a residence hall reading of Bernard Shaw’s Don Juan in Hell, where he was cast as the devil.     The New York Times

Nancy Jervis, former member of the class of 1965, was arrested in McComb, MS, with 13 other civil rights workers and charged with operating a food-handling business without a permit. Ms. Jervis was living in the Freedom House, which had been inspected and classified as a boarding house.
Five Americans died and nearly 100 were wounded in an attack by Viet Cong on the American air base at Bien Hoa, 12 miles north of the South Vietnam capital, Saigon.
President Johnson was reelected to office, defeating Senator Barry Goldwater from Arizona with 61 percent of the vote.
Professor Emeritus of Music George Sherman Dickinson, known to generations of Vassar students as “Dicky,” died in Chapel Hill, NC, at the age of 76.  A member of the music department from 1916 to 1953, Dickinson was its chair from 1932 until 1944, and he was the chief planner of the Belle Skinner Hall of Music, completed in 1932.  Appointed also as Music Librarian in 1927, his work with the collection brought about one of the great college music libraries in the country.

The New York Times reported that Vassar was among five colleges and universities in New York State collaborating as test sites for the innovative new approach to teacher education advocated by former Harvard president and United States Ambassador to Germany James B. Conant.  Conant proposed making colleges and universities responsible for teacher certification rather than the states, making classroom performance the major factor in certification,  siting more practical training in local schools and giving state authorities responsibility for supervision of practice teaching.  Most controversially, Conant’s plan, outlined in his book The Education of America’s Teachers (1963), called for the replacement of “how-to-teach” classes with “learning through teaching,” leaving more classroom time for teaching and learning in subject matter fields.

To avoid prolonged theoretical debate about his proposals, Conant enlisted as a test bed five quite different institutions with established commitment to teacher education in New York State.  In addition to Vassar, Brooklyn College, Cornell University, Colgate University and Fredonia State College agreed to implement the plan, which already had the blessing of James E. Allen, Jr., the state’s commissioner of education.

“The problem is,” Conant told The Times, “to get the professors of the various disciplines to sit down with the professors of education and to appraise what is now taught and what should be taught.”  Equally important, he added, was a commitment from the professors to examining classroom teaching in the schools and evaluating how well their subjects were presented to students.

Defending the liberal arts and praising "the educated woman" at the Washington Vassar Club, President Simpson announced that the college had met, nine months before the deadline, the $25 million goal set in 1955 for a 10-year development program. The majority of the donations came from alumnae, and of the total $16,500,000 was earmarked for the educational program, with emphasis on faculty salaries and scholarships, with the remainder intended for improvements to the physical plant.

Upholding the ideals of a liberal education against the pressing claims for a less broad and my professional curriculum, Simpson also asked, "What can the educated woman do for this world?"  "Her stake in life," he replied, "is the biggest because it's the longest.  She needs less reminders than men that we are born for purposes larger than ourselves.  She is the natural conservationist of tested values; the best interpreter of change; the last generalist in our intensely specialized civilization.  She can also claim a larger role for herself as explorer, manager and governor.  She can be invited to study countries in which the male fortresses are more battered than they are in ours, and where some of them have been reduced to the picturesque irrelevance of a medieval castle in a modern city."

Since the program’s inception faculty salaries were substantially improved, a new residence hall and a modern language center built and significant improvements made to Main Building, the Library and the Art Gallery.  The president noted that the college was currently attempting to meet a $2.5 million 3-to-1 challenge grant from the Ford Foundation.  Success in this effort would, he said, further enhance faculty salaries and academic programs as well as starting to address further physical plant needs, such as a biological sciences building, a laboratory theater, new faculty housing and residential facilities for students.     The Miscellany News

Professor Emeritus of Latin Elizabeth Hazelton Haight ’94 died in Poughkeepsie at the age of 92.  Towering classicist, feminist, faculty and alumnae leader, she was the first woman to be elected chairman of the Advisory Council of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome.  She also served as president of the American Philological Association.  The editor of Matthew Vassar’s Autobiography and Letters (1916), she and former president James Monroe Taylor published Vassar (1915), a comprehensive history of the college in the Oxford University Press’s “American College and University” series.  In 1919, three years after Taylor’s death, Miss Haight published Life and Letters of James Monroe Taylor: the Biography of an Educator.

Southeast Asian specialist and author Dr. Virginia Thompson Adloff '24 gave the inaugural C. Mildred Thompson Lecture, "Unity and Disunity in the Third World: Southeast Asia and Negro Africa," in Skinner Hall.  An officer with the Office of War Information in Southeast Asia during World War II and a professor at the University of California between 1961 and 1972, Dr. Adloff and her husband, Richard Adloff, a former State Department officer, published prolifically on East Asian and African issues after the war.

The Thompson lectureship, given to the college in 1963 by an anonymous donor, honored American historian C. Mildred Thompson '03, who taught in the history department from 1910 until 1923, when she became Vassar's dean, a position she held until her retirement in 1948.  On December 16, 1964, President Alan Simpson wrote to Dean Emeritus Thompson, who came from her home in Atlanta to attend the inaugural Thompson Lecture.  "From all sides," he said, "have come reports of the success of the first C. Mildred Thompson Lecture.  Virginia Adloff did herself and you proud....  Mary [Mrs. Simpson] and I thoroughly enjoyed your visit and the opportunity of coming to know Vassar's famous Dean Thompson—a distinquished scholar!"      Vassar Controller's file F0006

Dean Thompson died in 1975.

Dick Gregory, African American comedian, author and civil rights activist, was featured at Christmas House Parties Weekend. Noted by The Miscellany News for "his ability to make people laugh and then think about why they're laughing," Gregory aimed his humor at targets ranging from the snow on campus—"I like snow; it's about the only white thing we can step on"—to his daughter's reflection of the shifting status quo in American families—on telling him he must knock before entering her room: "'I'm three years old, I've got rights.'"  She also, he said, no longer believed in Santa Claus, because "'No white man's coming to our neighborhood after midnight.'"     The Miscellany News

A frequent visitor to Vassar, Dick Gregory appeared on campus in November 1976, February 1981 and March 1999.

At the start of the new year, there were a total of 23,000 American military advisors in South Vietnam.  The combined forces in South Vietnam of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army, the “People’s Revolutionary Army,” totaled some 170,000.
Viet Cong guerrillas killed eight Americans, wounded 126 others and destroyed ten aircraft in an attack on an American compound at Pleiku, Vietnam.  The following day, declaring “I’ve had enough of this,” President Johnson approved the bombing of a North Vietnamese army camp by Navy jets.
Folk-singer and activist Judy Collins performed in Students' Building for Freshman-Sophomore Weekend. "Clad in a loosely fitting pink dress," Joan Zoeller '66 wrote in The Miscellany News, "her natural presentation and warmth charmed the audience. Miss Collins held her guitar high, and her notes come out sharp and clear....  One of the most interesting phenomena of the concert was the reaction  of G-Stringers in the audience to her rendition of "Twelve Gates to the City."  They seemed to be studying her style and jogged their heads in time to the music.  The rapt attention of the audience and the large turnout added to the success of the concert."     The Miscellany News

Six hundred marchers, including Martin Luther King, Jr. and prominent members of his Southern Christian Leadership Council, in the first of three marches from Selma, AL, to Mongomery in support of efforts at voter registration by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), were attacked by state and local police, using tear gas and billy clubs.

The first U. S. combat troops, 3,500 Marines, landed in Vietnam, joining 23,000 American advisors.  The following day, President Johnson authorized the use of the petroleum-based anti-personnel weapon, Napalm.

Vassar faculty and students, along with President Simpson and his family, joined 3,000 other marchers, including representatives of the NAACP, the Human Relations Council, local ministries and Congressman Joseph Resnick, in a march in Poughkeepsie, part of a "nationwide response...to protest recent events in Selma, Alabama." The march was to object to the "the denial of suffrage and civil liberties to the Negro citizens and the brutal attacks upon civil rights demonstrators by the Alabama State Troopers."      The Miscellany News

Associate Professor of Chemistry Curt Beck spoke to a meeting at Vassar of some 100 anthropologists from 38 colleges, universities and research centers, members of the Northeast Anthropological Conference.  Dr. Beck demonstrated his innovative method of analyzing ancient amber, a key element in the anthropological tracing of the spread of the Bronze Age.  Prehistoric trade in amber provided evidence of the spread of Bronze Age technology, but the older method of testing the material was not only rather imprecise; it also required significant destruction of the artifact.  Using infrared spectroscopy, Beck—or one of his students—was able to gather far more precise information from two milligrams of amber in 20 minutes than researchers using the older method could produce after hours of work.  He told the conference that he was embarking on a plan to test five or six hundred samples from prehistoric sites in order to fix their origins.

Viet Cong terrorists bombed the United States embassy in Saigon.

In response, President Johnson authorized sending another two Marine battalions, along with 20,000 more logistical personnel to Vietnam, secretly authorizing American combat troops to conduct offensive operations.

Fourteen Vassar students marched in a protest against the war in Vietnam in Washington, D.C. , sponsored by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). Women Strike for Peace also participated.
The Miscellany News announced that Vassar College's singing group “The G-Stringers” would perform at Carnegie Hall as part of the “ ‘Collegiate Sound,’ which consists of singing groups from colleges all around the country.”  The group was among those appearing under the same auspices in 1963.
Members of the class of 1966 voted to use informal portraits in The Vassarion. The class chose a spot on campus where the students were to be photographed, and each student decided what to wear.
Data published in The New York Times showed that applications to Vassar for the Class of 1969 totaled 1,597, an increase of 58 from the previous year.  Six hundred and eighty-seven acceptances were offered to fill the 470 places available for freshmen.  Vassar’s acceptance rate was 43 percent of its applicants, compared with 52 percent for Barnard, 42 percent for Bryn Mawr, 44 percent for Mount Holyoke, 38 percent for Smith, 16 percent for Radcliffe and 25 percent for Wellesley.   Accepted students of color made up 3.2 percent of the applicants accepted at the seven colleges.
The college announced that Associate Professor of English Elizabeth Adams Daniels ’41 would succeed Inez Nelbach as dean of studies.  Dean Nelbach was the college’s first dean of studies.
The presentation of an art purchase fund bearing her name brought students, colleagues and friends from all parts of the country to Taylor Hall to salute art historian and founding director of the Vassar Art Gallery Agnes Rindge Claflin, who was retiring after 42 years at the college. Touring an exhibit in her honor, “Art since 1923”—including works by Picasso, Matisse, Albers, Lichtenstein and a “painting machine” by Jean Tinguely—Professor Claflin, who joined the faculty in 1923, told New York Times writer Grace Glueck “It shows you what a mixed epoch it’s been.”

“Modern art,” she continued, “is a very good way of finding out what the world looks like.  Artists are more important than most people.  The have a reach, a sensitivity.  They alert men’s imaginations 10 years ahead of events….  But concepts of art history have changed so much that I worry constantly about people going around with all those wrong things in their heads that they learned 25 years ago.”     The New York Times

Christine Hoene ’66 joined some 2,000 men in running with the bulls in Pamplona, Spain.  Wearing, according to The New York Times, a beige and blue pinafore, Hoene climbed over a 10-foot wooden barrier and led the crowd which in turn led six bulls. As the melee approached the bull-ring, the bulls, she said, “were a yard behind me….  Just before the entrance…the police caught me and pulled me out.”

Asked why she had joined the annual event, she replied, “I came to Pamplona because I heard it was the greatest party in Europe.”     The New York Times

Professor of Geology John H. Johnsen conducted a 6-week summer institute for high school students on the "Principles of Geology."

Rioting broke out in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles when police arrested first one, then the other of two Watts brothers and then their mother.  Angry onlookers attacked the officers and longstanding racial tensions exploded.  Despite the efforts of Black leaders in several community meetings, the crowds, the anger and the destruction continued to grow.

Police, firemen and nearly 14,000 National Guardsmen brought a curfew into effect on the 4th day, and the rioting subsided.  Thirty-four people died, 1,032 were injured and 3,438 were arrested.  Nearly 1,000 buildings were destroyed or damaged, and property damage was estimated at $40 million.

The Board of Trustees approved the construction of a new building in the present Science Quad, and the consolidation of the departments of Biology, Physiology, Zoology, and Plant Science. Plans were also announced to build a wing on the southeast side of Avery Hall that would house two theaters, and to install an IBM 360 in the renovated laundry building located behind Main.

A consolidated department of biology moved into the Olmsted Hall of Biological Sciences in 1972, and the administrative computing center and its new mainframe were dedicated in 1967.  All but the façade of Avery Hall was razed to make way for the Vogelstein Center for Drama and Film, which opened in 2003.

At a meeting in New York City of the American Chemical Society, Professor of Chemistry Curt Beck described his innovative use of infrared spectroscopic analysis of ancient amber to aid archeologists in determining more accurate dates for the beginning of prehistoric trading of the fossil material.  Amber was, along with salt, one of the two earliest known trading materials.
Sixty percent of an American battalion, ambushed by the North Vietnamese, suffered casualties; every third U.S. soldier was killed.
The Kendrick Jug Band, made up of members of the class of 1968, performed at several dorm parties. The band consisted of a "metal sheeter, spoons, washboard, jug, and a comb with wax paper, as well as banjo, gut bucket, auto harp, mouth harp and kazoo."     The Miscellany News

The Vassar Committee on Civil Rights, “adopted” a Mississippi Democratic Party worker, Ira Grupper, whom they called "The Grupper." The VCCR financially supported the worker, whose responsibilities were to canvass local neighborhoods to determine the problems of the people and to organize the Freedom Democratic Party.

Grupper, a lifelong activist, returned to Vassar from time to time.

Students received letters from Operation Match, a computer project started by two Harvard undergraduates who believe there is "an ideal date for each and every college student." The Harvard students had students from Wellesley, Connecticut College for Women, Smith, and Sarah Lawrence fill out a questionnaire. Apparently, some students checked their sex as "male" instead of "female." Vassar students opened their letters to find that their ideal dates on the list were not only men but many women as well.      The Miscellany News
"The New Scene," “the newest directions” in pop art, came to Vassar. Six young art celebrities—Enrique Castro-Cid, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Ad Reinhardt, James Rosenquist and Andy Warhol—spoke about their work. "I can't emphasize enough," Brenda Feigen '66, the sister of art dealer Richard Feigen, who arranged for the event and who moderated it, told The Miscellany News, "how unusual it is for any school to get a group of artists like this to come and talk." Vassar's "New Scene" panel was, she added, the first time the emerging pop artists appeared together for a public discussion of their work. In anticipation of the event, Deirdre Henderson '67, offered Misc. readers a summary of some of the artists and their work: "Warhol, Oldenburg and Lictenstein have been described by Arts Magazine as the 'Harpo, Groucho and Zeppo of Pop.' Lichtenstein made famous teh will, sometimes cynical comic strip art. Oldenburg sculpts—one of his more famous pieces being a life-sized pastry showcase. Warhol popularized portraits of 'Liz' and 'Marilyn' as well as the Campbell soup can. Rosenquist is teh master of billboard imagery—fragmentized compositions of advertising art. Castro-Cid builds moving, robot-like structures."
American poet Anthony Hecht read from his work.  His work in progress, The Hard Hours (1968), won the 1968 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry.
Ira Grupper, civil rights worker, lectured on the state of racial inequalities in the South.  Grupper was partially supported in his work by the Vassar Committee on Civil Rights.
The Miscellany News announced that a campus survey found that 6 percent of the student body had "little familiarity with or even interest in either pot or LSD" but a "fairly large number" of students use "pep" pills. Fifty percent of the students polled stated that they "had either taken [pep pills], or expressed no disapproval of others who did." President Simpson responded to the poll by stating "[Vassar students] are by and large too self-reliant to be attracted to the notion of dependence on any drug. They have too much good sense."
Jewish-American scholar Dr. Samuel Sandmel, professor of Bible and Hellenistic literature and Provost of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, lectured on "Christian Writers On Judaism and Jewish Writers on Jesus."
The trustees announced a $300 rise in comprehensive fees, bringing them to $3,100 for the next academic year.
The Vassar Committee for Civil Rights held the "Freedom How?" conference in order to explore the question: "What role can the Federal Government play in bringing about further changes, both economic and political, to enable its citizens to be free?" The keynote speaker was cultural historian and activist Howard Zinn, professor of political science at Boston University, who lectured on "The Politics of Protest."
Katherine Allabough ’68 defeated Vassar physical education instructor Alice Bixler, 15-13, 15-11 and 15-12, to win the 11th annual Manheim Challenge Cup women’s squash tournament at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia.
Aline Bernstein Saarinen '35, art critic and NBC new correspondent, gave the Helen Kenyon Lecture on "Style in Art, Politics and Life."

Operation Rolling Thunder, authorized a month earlier by President Johnson, began.  A limited but protracted bombing of North Vietnam, the operation was intended to dissuade North Vietnamese support for the Vietcong.

Rolling Thunder ended in November of 1968, having lost over 900 American aircraft and 818 pilots, either dead or missing.  By U. S. estimates, some 182,000 North Vietnamese civilians died.

American poet and novelist Howard Nemerov read from his work.
The Vassar College and Union College Madrigal Singers gave a joint concert, with Francis Poulenc's "Un Soir de Neige," as their principal piece.
John Freccero, professor of Italian and curator of the Dante and Petrarch Collections at Cornell University, lectured on Dante.  Freccero’s most recent book was his edition of Dante: A Collection of Critical Essays (1965), a collection of 14 essays examining the relationship of poetry to belief in The Divine Comedy.
Art historian David C. Huntington, from Smith College, lectured on "The Artist, the River, and the Mountains." Smith’s book The Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church: Vision of an American Era (1966) was significant in the critical rediscovery of Hudson River landscape master Frederic E. Church, and he was a collaborator on the 1966 travelling retrospective of Church’s work organized by the Smithsonian Institution’s National Collection of Fine Arts, the first comprehensive exhibit of Church’s work in nearly 70 years.
British philosopher, rhetorician and historian of science Dr. Stephen Toulmin, a visiting professor at Harvard University, lectured on "The Evolutionary Development of Natural Science."
James Roosevelt, son of Franklin D. Roosevelt and a United States delegate to UNESCO, lectured on the United Nations.
Lenore D. Hanks, a member of the Christian Science Board of Lectureship, lectured on "The Mythology of Matter."

American anthropologist Fred Eggan, Harold H. Swift Distinguished Service professor of Anthropology at the University of Chicago, lectured on "Lewis Henry Morgan and Cultural Evolution." Eggan’s application of the principles of British social anthropology in his study of Native American culture aligned him with the pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist Morgan (1818-1881), who first described underlying kinship patterns among Native Americans.

Eggan delivered the Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures at the University of Rochester in 1964, and the lectures were published as The American Indian: Perspectives for the Study of Social Change (1966).

Israeli archeologist Moshe Dothan, Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, lectured on "Excavation of the Philistine Ashdod." Dothan oversaw the several excavations in Canaan and Gaza on the Southeast coast of the Mediterranean between 1962 and 1972, during which successive layers of inhabitation of Ashdod, one of five ancient cities lived in by the Philistines, were discovered.
Gilbert Harrison, editor and publisher of The New Republic, lectured on "Lyndon B. Johnson and the Journalists."
Catalan philosopher José Ferrater Mora, Bryn Mawr, lectured on "Unamuno and the Problem of Religious Experience."

Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Lowell and his wife, critic and essayist Elizabeth Hardwick visited the college.   The sixth Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress—a title changed in 1984 to Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress—in 1947-48 and winner of the Pulitzer Prize in Poetry in 1947 for his collection Lord Weary's Castle (1946), Lowell acknowledged in his remarks the great influence on him of Elizabeth Bishop '34.  He read and commented on two of her poems, "The Armadillo" and "Visits to St. Elizabeth's," before turning to his own work.  Bishop, he observed, "never writes a poem just to write a poem."  His reading, said Judy Nadelberg '69 in The Miscellany News, "was a quiet reading—never overtly emotional—but the subtle shadings and tonings and the slight raising and lowering of his voice over certain words and phrases brought out all the bitterness, joy and anger inherent in the poems."

Earlier in the day Lowell and Hardwick spoke with reporters from The Miscellany News about both their work and the world.  He declined, he said, an invitation to read his work at a White House Arts Festival, in response to "an intuitive moral reason," his dissaproval of United States policies in Vietnam and Santo Domingo. While he felt that such gestures by the country's intellectual element "can act as a brake on the government," "the main thing for me was not going."  "The Lowells," Betsy Dick '68 wrote in The Miscellany News, "both felt that the press, especially The New York Times, has been responsible in reporting the Vietnam war.  Said Mrs. Lowell, 'Television is good so far as  the pictures are concerned, but there is a certain unreality about television—people are unresponsive.  Everyone thinks it is so far away.' Added Mr. Lowell, who in a recent letter to the White House expressed fears that we are becoming an 'explosive and suddenly chauvinistic society,' 'People think the country can't be wrong.'"

American historian and historiographer J. H. Hexter, founder and director of the Yale Center for Parliamentary History, gave the C. Mildred Thompson Lecture on "The Rhetoric of History."   A combative theorist on the methods of history, Hexter was characterized in verse at his retirement from Yale in 1978 by his colleague Edmund Morgan:

“Oh, some speak very softly, and some are most polite,

And some will make concessions, and admit you may be right,

But I’m for disputation, and a good old fashioned fight,

Says that rough, tough wreckster, J. H. Hexter.”

 Quoted in “Historian J. H. Hexter dies at the age of 86,”   http://wupa.wustl.edu/record_archive/1996/12-12-96/6978.html

The Thompson lectureship, given by an anonymous donor, honored American historian C. Mildred Thompson '03, who taught in the history department from 1910 until 1923, when she became Vassar's dean, a position she held until her retirement in 1948. Dean Thompson died in 1975.

Some 250 fathers of members of the Class of 1968 (and a few mothers) from all parts of the country joined their daughters, their daughters’ friends and members of the faculty for the annual Sophomore Fathers Weekend.  Dancing began the weekend, and afterwards some students took their “daddies” to, as William Borders put it in The New York Times, “Vassar’s traditional dating haunts, such as Palmer’s and The Dutch, to the dismay of the standard weekend crowds already there from such places as Williams and Yale.”

Tennis, golf and bowling were intermixed with a Sunday sermon from the Rev. Eugene Carson Blake, secretary-elect of the World Council of Churches, on “The End of the World,” weighty faculty seminars and a talk about computers from Professor of Mathematics Winifred Asprey ’38 and Theodor H. Nelson from the sociology department.  Dr. Asprey told the fathers about three seniors in her nascent computer program who had accepted jobs for next year at starting salaries over $7,000, and the man who had already coined the terms “hypertext” and “hypermedia” assured the visitors that computers like the IBM Model 360 the college had just acquired “are reshaping our lives.”

“It’s the first time in 19 years,” said one fathers about the time with his daughter, “that we’ve really talked, and we’re both getting to say a lot of good things we’ve left unsaid too long.”  “It’s like this every year,” professor of history and dean of freshmen Clyde Griffen told Borders.  “I guess,” he continued, “it something about American society.  But here they are.  The come from all over, and they love it.”     The New York Times

United States Commissioner of Education Harold Howe II urged the Class of 1966 to realize and then remember that real improvement in American life could only come about through the creation of decent communities which grant to all their members social justice and courtesy.  “If I could find it in myself to do so,” he said, “I would encourage you to aim at the stars, to renew this tired world with your youthful enthusiasm and your high hopes…to echo, in short, the thunderous boosterism that has been popular with graduation speakers.”  But, he warned, the world and the nation needed heroics less than it needed everyday courage and decency.  The rare geniuses and occasional heroes would do what they inevitably do, he prophesied, but each person “can share the action and passion of  his time without making a career of it.  It is not necessary for you to build the millennium by 1970….  This is especially true with regard to civil rights, for the great battles remaining to be fought will not be waged in Selma and Watts, Montgomery or Bogalusa.  The most enduring and critical victories will have to be won in the quiet communities.

“These battles will be won by personnel managers who go beyond employing brilliant Negroes to giving mediocre Negroes the same chance for a job as mediocre whites….  We need,” Howe concluded, “quiet heroes who—while going about their nine-to-five business—take time to shape a slightly different world than the one they found.”     The New York Times

United States Senator Birch Bayh, lectured on "Politics as a Career."  Bayh represented Indiana in the Senate from 1963 until 1981.
Stuart W. Rockwell, deputy secretary for Near East affairs for the State Department, lectured on Vietnam.
American archeologist Gordon R. Willey, the first Charles P. Bowditch Professor of Central American and Mexican Archeology at Harvard, lectured on "Researches in the Mayan Area."  One of a handful of archeologists to serve as president of the American Anthropological Association, Willey was honored by the association with the establishment of the annual Gordon R. Willey Prize recognizing an exceptional archaeological paper published in its journal, American Anthropologist.
Mrs. J. Aduke Moore, United Nations representative from Nigeria, lectured on "Struggle for Political Unity in Nigeria."
An ad hoc student-faculty committee held a teach-in entitled "Vietnam: An Analysis of the Issues."
English poet, writer and critic A. Alvarez lectured on "What Happened to Modernism?"
The college announced the $500,000 endowment of the Dexter M. Ferry, Jr. chair by the D. M. Ferry Jr. Trustee Corporation and members of the late Mr. Ferry’s family.  The chair was specifically intended to be assigned to any area of the curriculum.

Mr. Ferry had given $200,000 in 1950 for the Dexter M. Ferry, Jr. Cooperative House, which opened in 1951. Two of Mr. Ferry’s daughters, Edith Ferry Hooper ’32 and Jean Ferry Davis ’35, were Vassar graduates, and two of his sisters, Blanche Ferry Hooker ’94 and Queene Ferry Coonley ’96 had given $100,000 in 1919 for the erection of Alumnae House.

Hungarian-born philosopher, Julius Moravcsik, a classical  scholar and philosopher of language from the University of Michigan who called himself “a Platonist but with a pragmatic flavor,” lectured on "Living as Recollection, as Shown in Plato's Meno."
Australian writer and filmmaker Myra Roper lectured on "The New China."  An early Western visitor, Roper had visited the People’s Republic of China in 1958, 1963 and 1965, gathering material for her book, China—the Surprising Country (1966) and shooting footage for two films.
Kendrick Hall became a Maison Française, with 32 students determined to speak only French within the house.
The Dean's Program was inaugurated.  Intended to supplement departmental programming by providing endowed funding of specific-topic symposia, over the next two years the program offered symposia on such topics as “The Politics of Youth;” “The Death of God Theology;” “Human Behavior in Terms of Studies of Animal Behavior;” “What's Happening in the Arts;” “Urban Poverty” and “New Directions of the Liberal Arts.”
French-born critic and scholar Victor Brombert, chairman of the French department at Yale University, lectured on "Malraux and the World of Violence."
American poet Denise Levertov, poet in residence, began her stay at Vassar.
Despite heavy fighting in July, when nearly 1,300 North Vietnamese troops were killed, the Vietcong was again at full strength, thanks to replacements from North Vietnam.
Dr. George F. Bass, University of Pennsylvania, lectured on "Archeology Under Water."  A pioneer in underwater archeology, Bass directed the first excavation of an entire ancient shipwreck, a late Bronze Age ship off the coast of Turkey.
John Brentlinger, professor of philosophy at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, lectured on the "Cycle of Becoming in Plato's 'Symposium.'"
At the Senior Convocation Ceremony, students petitioned President Alan Simpson for better communication between the student body and the administration.
American poet A. R. Ammons read from his most recent work, including Tape for the Turn of the Year (1965).
Eminent art collector and visiting scholar Curtis O. Baer lectured on "Problems Concerned with the Study of Drawing."
German Christian theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg, professor of systematic theology at the University of Mainz, lectured on "The Foundation of Ethics and the Kingdom of God." Pannenberg’s first major works, Revelation as History and Jesus: God and Man, appeared in 1968.
South African scholar Mphiwa B. Mbatha, visiting professor at the State University of New York at New Paltz, lectured on "Zulu Culture, African Click Languages, and What Anthropologists Can Do and Contribute."
German-born art historian Wolfgang Stechow, Robert Sterling Clark Professor of Art for 1966-67 at Williams College, gave a lecture entitled "Breughel Spoke to the People."   A member of the Oberlin College faculty between 1940 and 1963, Stechow returned to Vassar as Mary Conover Mellon Professor of Art for the 1969-70 academic year.
John Wilkie, chairman of the board of trustees, dedicated the Jeannette K. Watson faculty housing complex, designed by architects Carl Koch and Associates of Boston.
American violinist and composer Paul Zukofsky, winner of the 1965 Young Concert Artists International Auditions, gave a recital.
President Alan Simpson announced the formation of the Committee on New Dimensions. The Committee explored 13 ideas, six about "various forms of cooperation with other colleges and universities" and others regarding "calendar change, four-year M. A. programs for gifted students, 'pre-professional or semi-professional' programs in fields like teaching or museum work, field work programs, and coeducation."      The Miscellany News
Adele Franklin and Sadie Kasden, members of the All-Day Neighborhood Schools Program, New York City, lectured on "Serving Disadvantaged Children."
The college extended curfews for seniors returning at night by car to 2:30 AM on any night of the week, provided that the individuals returned accompanied by another person. The hours during which Main residents were permitted to have men in their rooms were also extended.
Dr. Benjamin Spock lectured at Vassar on "Child-Rearing in the Atomic Age."
American architectural historian Dr. James S. Ackerman, professor of fine arts at Harvard, lectured on "Leonardo's Light: An Encounter of Art and Science."  A prominent historian of Renaissance Italian architecture and architectural theory Ackerman published a two-volume study, The Architecture of Michaelangelo, in 1961, and Palladio appeared in 1966.
Vassar held a "Conference on Journalism and Protest."

Vassar became the first women's college to have a student chapter of the National Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).


The Vassar College Administration formalized an anti-narcotic policy: "The use, possession, or dispensing of hallucinogenic drugs, and of marijuana and all other narcotic drugs, except on a doctor's prescription, are prohibited. Failure to cooperate fully with any investigation into the use, possession or circulation of any such drugs is a serious offense."     The Miscellany News
Scholar of medieval Jewish philosophy Arthur Hyman, from Yeshiva University, lectured on "Jewish Piety."
British-born philosopher and interpreter of Eastern mystical thought Alan Watts lectured on "Transformations of Consciousness: Fears and Fascinations."  A convert to Zen Buddhism and, at this period, to psychedelic aids to meditation, Watts was the author of many books, including The Way of Zen (1957), The Joyous Cosmology—Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness (1962) and Beyond Theology—The Art of Godmanship (1964).
The Lucas Hoving Dance Company performed. An original member of the José Limón Dance Company, Hoving formed his own company in 1961.

"It is very doubtful that what is called Bloomsbury ever existed, but for the purposes of this lecture I have to pretend that it did," said English novelist David Garnett, lecturing on "Virginia Woolf and Bloomsbury." A younger member of the group of English writers, theorists and artists who gathered in the London district called Bloomsbury in the early 20th century that included Lytton Strachey, Maynard Keynes, Virginia and Leonard Woolf and Virginia Woolf's sister Vanessa and her husband, the artist Clive Bell, Garnett gained wide acclaim for his novel Lady into Fox, which won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction in 1922.

In what Tona Johnston '68 called in The Miscellany News "a delightful and exceptional evening," Garnett spoke of the interests and eccentricities of the diverse group of intellectuals, ranging from pacificism, condemnation of snobbery and sexual freedom to the economist Keynes's habit of inviting those who wished to speak with him about his ideas to do so as he was taking his bath and to Virginia Woolf's little-known "delight in lampooning herself." About Woolf he said, "By the time I got to know her well, she'd suffered much and was already almost middle-aged," adding that "Everything she described was a unique experience; she never generalized, always particularized.... I was trying to write, too, making feeble experiments, and my goodness, it was exciting to read Virginia!"

Roger Sessions gave the first lecture of the newly established Dickenson-Kayden Fund, entitled "Opera in the Twentieth Century." Mildred Bernstein Kayden ’42 established the fund in honor of the late Professor Emeritus of Music George Sherman Dickenson.
Alan Dent, Scottish drama critic, lectured on "Criticism and the Theater." London critic for The Manchester Guardian and, later, film critic for The London Illustrated News, Dent wrote the screenplay for Lawrence Olivier’s Henry V, and was text editor and advisor for the actor’s productions of Hamlet and Richard III.
John Gerassi, Newsweek, lectured on "The Great Fear in Latin America."
Italian-born American mathematician and philosopher Gian Carlo-Rota, from Rockefeller University, lectured on "Combinational Theory."
Vassar College and Yale University released the following statement:

"The Trustees of Vassar College have accepted an invitation by the Corporation of Yale University to make a joint study of the possibilities of cooperation between the two institutions, it was announced today by the presidents of Vassar and Yale. The desirability and feasibility of relocating Vassar College in New Haven would be a major interest in such a study.”

In making the announcement, President Simpson said, 'This is a most imaginative and exciting proposal. The benefits to these two distinguished institutions might be tremendous; the problems to be faced are formidable.

“Vassar College would have to determine whether New Haven offers a wider field for its modern mission than its historic home; whether its identity could be properly preserved; whether the site is ample enough; and whether the prodigious human, legal, and financial problems are surmountable. The possibilities of such a brilliant partnership, among the varieties of development which are open to Vassar College, merit the most thoughtful study.”

President Kingman Brewster, Jr., of Yale said, “I am very pleased that Vassar has accepted our invitation to a joint study. The Yale Corporation made it known last March that if further study indicated that Yale could make a contribution to the education of women at the college level, the coordinate college approach would be preferable to any expansion of Yale College to accommodate women.

“The opportunity to explore these possibilities with Vassar College is a great privilege for Yale. Whether the interests of both institutions can best be served by such a coordinate relationship cannot now be foretold. Whatever the outcome of the study, Yale will benefit greatly from this joint exploration with such an eminent and successful sister institution."      The Miscellany News
According to the Poughkeepsie Journal, Poughkeepsie and Dutchess County officials "expressed 'strong determination' to attract a state or private college or university graduate center to Vassar if the college is moved to New Haven...."

As the new year began, the United States had 385,000 troops in Vietnam and 60,000 sailors offshore.  American deaths in the war stood at 6,000, with another 30,000 wounded.  Although the number of Vietcong killed was estimated at 61,000, their forces numbered over 280,000.

Dean-elect of the Faculty Nell Eurich was appointed vice-chairman of the Committee on New Dimensions, joining Dean of Studies Elizabeth A. Daniels '41 in directing the committee's work.

Former President Henry Noble McCracken announced his opposition to the college's proposed affiliation with Yale University, citing it as "an ethical breach of trust in the more than 1,000 individual endowments to Vassar College, dating back 106 years to Matthew Vassar's original $400,000 investment."  A month later, in The New York Times, MacCracken charged that moving to New Have would be "a wholesale takeover of an independent institution," casting aside Vassar's independence "for a position alongside a big university.    The Poughkeepsie Journal, The Miscellany News

At its first meeting, the Vassar-Yale Joint Trustee-Fellow Committee approved the guidelines for the Vassar-Yale coordinate study.

President Simpson and two aides met with 32 Dutchess County leaders in industry, government and education to discuss the study being undertaken by Vassar and Yale. Simpson ruled out closer cooperation with the four local colleges -- Bennett, Dutchess Community, Bard, and Marist -- as a suitable alternative to moving to New Haven.  “I realize,” he said, “that a college must be rooted in the heart of a community, as Vassar is, and that it must serve the community.  But…I have an even bigger responsibility.  The college has an obligation to offer to some of the best women in the country some of the best education.  The problem is how to fulfill that trust.”

City Manager Thomas W. Maurer said that the college’s 500 nonprofessional jobs and the support of its 1,600 students and 935 acre campus accounted for $7 million of the community’s economy and that the $200 million urban renewal program under way in Poughkeepsie would be slowed if Vassar took its business to New Haven.  The group of legislators and businessmen stated that they would "press for the establishment of a graduate university center in Dutchess County regardless of whether Vassar College [moved] to New Haven."     The Poughkeepsie Journal, The New York Times

The first of six meetings of a sub-committee of the Committee on the New Dimensions, chaired by Elizabeth A. Daniels, Dean of Studies, heard student thoughts on "the entire scope of Vassar education."

Merce Cunningham, Matthew Vassar Lecturer, presented a dance lecture-demonstration.  

Hans-Stefan Schultz, University of Chicago, lectured on "Der Dichter und die Zeit."

The college announced that 39 prominent alumnae and former faculty members had written to The Miscellany News criticizing Vassar student leaders’ failure to endorse a recent statement, sent to President Lyndon Johnson by students from many colleges and universities, which strongly opposed United States policy in Vietnam.  “As alumnae and former faculty members,” the letter said, “proud of Vassar’s record of active concern for human life and social progress, we are disappointed in this silence.”

The letter’s signers included: Professor Emeritus of English Helen Sandison; Professor Emeritus of Economics Emily Clark Brown; poet Muriel Ruykeyser ’34; photographer Rollie Thorne McKenna ’40; Mary Clabaugh Wright ’38, professor of history at Yale; writers Felicia Lamport ‘37 and Jane Whitbread Levin ’36; art historian and critic Katharine Kuh ’25; Charlotte Curtis ’50, women’s news editor of The New York Times; Margaret Skelly Goheen ’41, the wife of Princeton president Robert Goheen and Jane Northrop Bancroft ’36, wife of  the executive editor of The Times.

The editor of The Miscellany News was not immediately available for comment, and Secretary of the College Lynn C. Bartlett said he would have “no comment because Vassar people, like everyone else, are free to express an opinion if they want or not express an opinion.”    

Subsequently, Student Government Association President Marcia Sneden ’67 and Beth Dunlop ’69, the editor of The Miscellany News, responded that neither had known of the student leaders’ letter, but they noted that Ms. Sneden had been among a special student steering committee that met on January 31 with Secretary of State Dean Rusk to express strong student misgivings over the administration’s Vietnam policies.     The New York Times

Assemblyman Victor Waryas introduced in the State Assembly a bill calling for the establishment of a university center at the Vassar College site.

A panel of seven seniors discussed their Vassar educations with the Trustee Committee on Undergraduate Life.  Discussing "the relative merits of 'bigness' and the drawbacks thereof, "Vivian Bland '67, who spent her junior year in Princeton's critical languages program, found the level of "intellectual blood, sweat and tears" at the university on a par with that at Vassar, but she felt that the university perspective lent a sense of greater pupose to the work.  Rosemary Boyd '67, a mathematics major, found the criticism of small college math departments unjust.  "The Vassar education," she said, "is not designed to educate the men who can be educated anywhere."  "I have learned here," she concluded, "to respect myself as a mathematician and a woman."

Kathleen McAfee '67, a biology major and Matthew Vassar scholar and the president of the Vassar Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), declared herself "rather bitterly disappointed with my intellectual experience at Vassar."  A consistenty low level of expectation among the faculty and the "general maternalism of rules and regulations at Vassar"—along with an ineffectual College Government Association (CGA)—led, she said, to a general fear of experimentation at the college.  But, Miss McAfee added, "the depth of my alienation is not shared by all students."  Sara Linnie Slocum '67, a former editor-in-chief of The Miscellany News and an honors history major, noted a growing disappointment among seniors with the approach of the end of their time at the college.  "In me," she said, "it's taken the form of not caring anymore.  It's the feeling that there was nothing you could have done about the place."  There was at Vassar, she added "no way to expand your horizons."

Trustee John F. Dooling's response to Miss Slocum, that the trustees "are not trying to adjust you to the world but to maladjust you to a bad world," provoked Ellen Kovner '67, a student observer to the discussion, to say, "You're doing us an injustice—you're turning our discontent into something admirable."  Miss McAfee concluded this part of the conversation, declaring, "This education is precisely to maladjust you to a bad world, and it doesn't do that—it lulls you into complacency."

Other student speakers were Eve Slater '67, an honors chemistry major, and Jane Rubens '67, an English major.  "I have felt," Miss Slater said, "a day by day, hour by hour learning process," adding "my education here has been special, but it is in jeopardy in terms of the future," and Miss Rubens said, "I am one of those who, given a choice, would come here again, but it isn't that this place is perfect."

In conclusion, Marcia Sneden '67, the program's moderator and the acting CGA president, summed up the attitude of the senor class as one of "withdrawal, retreat, frustration and quietism."     The Miscellany News

Welsh philosopher G. E. L. Owen, Harvard, lectured on "Plato on Not-Being."

William S. Gaud, administrator of the State Department’s 15 year-old Agency for International Development, lectured on "The U.S. Foreign Aid Program."

In his Winter Alumni Day address, President Kingman Brewster of Yale, spoke to 1,000 Yale alumnae and wives about the proposed Yale-Vassar study.  Yale, he said, could make a crucial contribution to higher education with Vassar's move: human, library and laboratory resources would be better utilized and a coordinate college situation would better suit the increasing pace of the change in society.

“Bringing women in,” Brewster declared, “will enrich and enlarge the variety of interests, points of view and values taken into consideration in the classrooms and seminar rooms of Yale…. The presence of the opposite sex is a constructive stimulus to a higher level of performance on everyone's part, students and faculty of both sexes."      The New York Times

New York Chamber Soloists Orchestra gave the Barbara Woods Morgan Memorial Concert in the Students' Building.

Robert Van Nice, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, gave the Class of 1928 Visiting Scholars' Lecture, entitled "Saint Sophia: An Architectural Inquiry." As resident representative of Harvard’s Dumbarton Oaks research center, Van Nice published the core documentation on Hagia Sophia, the 6th century church/mosque/museum in Istanbul.  The first volume of his St. Sophia in Istanbul: An Architectural Survey appeared in 1965, followed by volume two in 1986.

Columbia University musicologist Denis Stevens, former editor of Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians and founder of the baroque chorus and orchestra Accademia  Monteverdiana, lectured on "Claudio Monteverdi: The Madrigalist."

Folk-singer Pete Seeger performed. Seeger, whose appearance at Vassar in 1962 was protested by the American Legion, was a vigorous opponent of the war in Vietnam.  His 1967 song, “Waist Deep in the Big Muddy,” subtly attacked both the war and President Johnson, prompting its censorship in some performances.

Physician and sex educator Mary Steichen Calderone '25, lectured on "Sex Attitudes and Sex Education."

President Alan Simpson confirmed the announcement by Elizabeth Daniels, dean of studies, that the Committee on New Dimensions was “reorganizing to examine alternatives to the Yale-Vassar study."

American bassoonist and conductor Arthur Weisberg conducted the Contemporary Chamber Ensemble, a group founded by Weisberg in 1961 and in residence at Rutgers as part of a workshop program supported by the Rockefeller Foundation.  Among the selections on the program was “Fantasy and Variations,” by Richard Wilson, who joined the Vassar music faculty in 1966. 

The Board of Trustees approved the proposal that Elizabeth Daniels, Dean of Studies, devote the remainder of the semester as full-time chairman of the Committee on New Dimensions, in order to study alternatives to the Yale-Vassar coordination.

British poet Jon Silkin, read from his work.  Silkin’s Poems, New and Selected appeared in 1966.

Civil rights leader Whitney Young, Jr., executive director of the National Urban League, lectured on "From Pledge to Performance in Civil Rights."  Under Young’s direction, the league, a relatively small and cautious organization founded early in the 20th century, became a major force in the civil rights movement in the 1960s.

Spanish-Canarian historian, critic and essayist Juan Marichal, Harvard University, lectured on "The Intellectual and Politics in Modern Spain."

British philosopher and political theorist Sir Isaiah Berlin, former Chichele Professor of  Social and Political Theory and president of Wolfson College, University of Oxford, gave the first C. Mildred Thompson Lecture of the academic year, entitled, "The Enlightenment Century: Revolution in Ethics and Politics."

The Thompson lectureship, given by an anonymous donor, honored American historian C. Mildred Thompson '03, who taught in the history department from 1910 until 1923, when she became Vassar's dean, a position she held until her retirement in 1948.  Dean Thompson died in 1975.

President Alan Simpson addressed Associate Alumnae of Vassar College, stating "Vassar cannot go it alone...It must break out in some constructive way. Otherwise it faces a 'brain drain.'" Dean of Studies Elizabeth Daniels also spoke on alternatives to the Yale-Vassar coordination.

Abstract expressionist painter Ad Reinhardt gave the1928 Visiting Scholars' Lecture entitled, "Artists among Artists."

Two hundred faculty and students marched in front of Main Building in silent protest against United States' involvement in Vietnam.

Irma Brandeis, Dante scholar and professor of literature at Bard College, lectured on "Glimpses of the Master's Hand: Two Canti from Dante's Purgatory." 

Polish-born biologist, mathematician and historian of science Jacob Bronowski, associate director of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, gave the Sigma Xi RESA (Research Society of America) Lecture, entitled "The New Philosophy of Biology." Established in 1959, the club was a preliminary step in the establishment in 1995 of a chapter of Sigma Xi, a national honorary scientific society open to faculty members with associate membership for outstanding students.

Pioneer social psychologist Theodore M. Newcomb, founder of the doctoral program in social psychology at the University of Michigan, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Conservation Lecture, entitled "College Influences on Change and Persistence of Attitudes."

As letters of acceptance to Class of 1971 at Ivy League and Seven College Conference institutions went out, The New York Times noted sharply increased efforts to add cultural and racial diversity to their student bodies.  The paper also presented application and acceptance data for the schools.  At Vassar, where the 1,386 applications represented a 2.9 percent increase over the previous year, 699 applicants—50 percent—were accepted for 435 places.

Radcliffe, experiencing a 17.5 increase in applications accepted 350 of the 2,428 applicants—14.4 percent—for 300 places in the freshman class.  Barnard, with 4.7 percent more applicants over 1966, accepted 48 percent; Mount Holyoke, seeing a 3.6 percent increase, accepted 41percent; Smith, with a 1.6 percent decline in applications, accepted 44 percent and Wellesley, down 7.9 percent in applications, accepted 30 percent. 

Astrophysicist Vera Cooper Rubin '47, Carnegie Institution of Washington, lectured on "Galaxies and Quasars."

Judicial historian and biographer Carl Brent Swisher, Johns Hopkins University, gave the Sharpe Memorial Lecture, entitled "Law and Lawlessness."

 

American attacks on North Vietnamese airfields began, inflicting heavy damage on runways and installations and over time destroying about half of the North’s air power.

William Sloane Coffin, Jr., chaplain of Yale University, lectured on "The Ethics of the War in Vietnam."   An early spokesman for the civil rights movement, Coffin was also among the first to denounce the United States presence in Vietnam.

Representatives from Vassar’s academic departments held preliminary discussions on coordination with their Yale counterparts.

Vassar held a symposium, "Historians Look at Latin America Today," in honor of Latin American and foreign policy scholar Professor of History and Dean of the Faculty Charles C. Griffin, who was retiring after 34 years in Vassar’s history department.  The panelists included Robert Alexander, Rutgers University; Lewis Hanke, Columbia University; Frederick Pike, The University of Pennsylvania; Stanley Stein, Princeton University and Professor Griffin.  Professor Carl Degler, the symposium's moderator, said its purpose was "to honor Charles Griffin for the high position he has acheived in the field of Latin American studies, both in this country and south of the Rio Grande."  "On this occasion," Professor Degler continued, "Vassar will pay tribute to one of her most distinguished teachers and historians, as well as to the dean of the faculty."

In his retirement, Professor Griffin worked in Swift Hall under a grant from the Library of Congress, organizing the Library's Latin American section, and in the second term of 1967-68 he taught at Princeton.    The Miscellany News

American mathematician and historian of mathematics Kenneth O. May, from the University of Toronto, lectured on "Quantity and Quality of the Mathematical Literature."   May contributed “May’s theorem” to the field of social choice theory and was the founder of the International Commission on the History of Mathematics (ICHM).

The Honorable Eugenie Anderson, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, gave the inaugural Barbara Bailey Brown Lecture entitled, "The United Nations Now: Problems and Promises."  The Barbara Bailey Brown Fund, was established in 1966 by the Class of 1932 in memory of their classmate Barbara Bailey '32 in support of programs and lectures fostering international understanding.

Prominent critic and biographer of W. B. Yeats and James Joyce Richard Ellmann, from Northwestern University, gave the Class of 1928 Visiting Scholars' Lecture, entitled "Eminent Domain: Yeats and Wilde."  Ellmann’s Eminent Domain: Yeats among Wilde, Joyce, Pound, Eliot, and Auden appeared in 1967.

Yale University President Kingman Brewster addressed the Vassar faculty on Yale's vision for coordinate education. 

The chancellor of the State University of New York, Samuel Gould, spoke to the Class of 1967 and their guests at Commencement, warning that the age had become a “juvenocracy, where even the old are preoccupied with youth.  Yet there exists an acute lack of awareness between the youth who aims to keep up with change and the adult who styles himself in the image of youth and yet desires to preserve traditional realities.”  Gould described the alienated youth who claimed that his education was manipulated and irrelevant: “He trusts no one over 30; his alienation is so rampant that he has begun scrutinizing his own peers and doubting his own motives.”

President Simpson conferred the bachelor’s degree on 388 graduates of the college.     The New York Times

At the annual meeting of the Associate Alumnae of Vassar College (AAVC), alumnae fund chairman Mrs. Helen Hendrickson Couch '24 announced that the $7.5 million raised by alumnae to match a $2.5 million challenge grant from the Ford Foundation made Vassar the first college whose graduates had successfully matched a Ford Foundation challenge unaided by other bodies.  The Ford challenge, issued in 1964 and set to expire on June 30, 1967 had already been met by the college in August of 1966. 

The AAVC president, France Prindle Taft ’42 announced that 100 percent of the 165 living members of the Class of 1917 contributed to the class’s 50th anniversary gift of  $400,000.

Dr. Nell P. Eurich became Dean of Faculty.  A former member of the English department at New York University and former acting president of her alma mater, Stephens College, and of New College in Sarasota, FL, she was the wife of Alvin C. Eurich, president of the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies.  Her Columbia PhD dissertation appeared as Science in Utopia: A Mighty Design from Harvard University Press in 1967.

Racial tensions erupted in Detroit when police raided a party for two returning Vietnam veterans at an unlicensed club.  As trouble spread, city and state police were overwhelmed, and by the second day, nearly 500 fires and hundreds of separate incidents resulted in 1,800 arrests.  President Johnson sent in Federal troops on the third day, and the 82nd Airborne stood ready to deploy paratroopers.  Machine guns and tanks were used to regain control of several areas of the city.

Before subsiding on July 26, the riots had inspired similar incidents in Flint, Saginaw, Grand Rapids in Michigan and in Toledo, Ohio.  In all: 43 people—33 of them African Americans—died; 467 people were injured; 7,231 people, ranging in age from four to 82—were arrested; 2,509 stores were burned or looted; 412 buildings were damaged irreparably; 388 families were homeless and damage estimates were between $40 and $80 million.

In the wake of racially-inspired riots in many parts of the country President Lyndon Johnson appointed a National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, to be chaired by Illinois Governor Otto Kerner with New York City Mayor John Lindsay as vice chair.  The commission issued its report and a summary of its 17 chapters and six main recommendations on March 1, 1968.

Vassar celebrated the opening of the new computer center and the dedication of its IBM 360 computer. "No other women's college...has a computer of this capacity," stated President Alan Simpson. Professor of mathematics Winifred Asprey '38 introduced the keynote speaker at the dedication, her former Vassar professor and a computer pioneer, Commander Grace Murray Hopper '28, who spoke on "Computers and Your Future." Concurrently serving in the Navy (since 1943) and as staff scientist in the UNIVAC division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, Hopper, Susan Frelich '70 reported in The Miscellany News, "emphasized the future because she feels that she actually lives in the future. This is only the beginning of the computer age, she said; we are only beginning to know what to do with computers."

"She then explained that although computers can perform two operations simultaneously (multi-processing), we do not know how to use this power since human beings can only perform sequential rather than parallel thought operations. Creating a form of multi-dimensional mathematics should be our next challenge she said. She pointed out, however, that one must remember that machines are useless without people telling them what to do and that there is a serious shortage of such brainpower."

Student seminars and faculty research were highlighted as the college embarked on academic computing.  Among faculty projects cited by The Miscellany News were the examination of light wave patterns given off by amber by Professor of Chemistry Curt Beck, tests of intuition devised by Associate Professor of Psychology Malcolm Westcott and a study by Associate Professor of Religion John Glasse of the use of Lutheran doctrine by Ludwig Feuerbach, whose identification as "(a nineteenth century theologian)" drew a spirited posthumous response from Feuerbach in the issue for October 4.  

"It is pleasant," he wrote, "to have made the front page of The Misc...even if it had to be as data for Vassar's new computer." "I am distressed, though," Feuerbach continued, "at being billed as a 'theologian.'  That is just what I have wanted not to be, ever since I quit theology after having tried it as a freshman.  I am a philosopher.  As to Lutheran doctrine, the philosopher continued, "I hope your man Glasse has found that that didn't really interest me.  What did was Martin Luther the man, and his lively reports on religious experience from within....  He misunderstood his own experience, of course, as Chrisitians do.  But I've cleared that up in my book, The Essence of Christianity.  It's in paperback, you know."

A frequent visitor to the campus, Grace Murray Hopper returned in the fall of 1971 to join three other distinquished alumnae, Princeton philosopher Margaret D. Wilson '60, historian C. Doris Hellman '30 and microbiologist Gladys L. Hobby '31 in a discussion of "Science and Human Values," the final Alumnae Association Centennial Seminar.     The Miscellany News


Columbia University historian of city planning George R. Collins, visiting scholar in art, lectured on "Visionary City Planning in Our Century."  Collins taught Art 386a, "Modern City Planning," and focusing his lecture on modern "geometrics," "utopias" and "technological fantasies," he concluded that "the visionary plans of our century tend toward the dynamic—expandable and expendable in character."     The Miscellany News

Collins’s Camillo Sitte and the Birth of Modern City Planning (1965) illuminated the work of the 19th century Austrian architect and innovator, and his 10-volume general edition of the “Planning and Cities” series (1968-75) traced the history of urbanism back to ancient and primitive societies.

Columbia University art historian Theodore Reff, lectured on "Degas and 'The Daughter of Jephtha.’"

Speaking to the Associate Alumnae of Vassar College, Elizabeth Daniels '41, dean of studies and director of special studies for the Committee on New Dimensions, said that a survey of alumnae showed the majority of responding alumnae to prefer single-sex education.

The Gertrude Folks Zimand Lecture entitled, "Community Power Structure and the War on Poverty," was given by Kenneth Clark, professor of psychology at the City University of New York.  Clark, whose 1950 study of the effects of segregation on the development of both white and black students was cited in the Supreme Court’s 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education, was recipient of the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal in 1961.

An article, "How Dare They Do It?" by Dorothy Sieberling '43 in LIFE magazine denounced Vassar’s possible move to Yale and to New Haven.   A senior editor at the magazine, Ms. Sieberling asked "How can they consider plunging into a congested city at a time when colleges—and the human soul—crave space?  How can theY contemplate trading an intimate personal environment for the mounting depersonalization of the multiversity?."  "Most of all," she continued, "how can they abandon and destroy an institution of long and great distinction whose potential for valuable service and leadership is still strong?"

The article sketched Vassar's history, traced the history of the Vassar/Yale negotiations, presented the work of the campus Committee on New Dimensions and contrasted photographs of the lawns and vistas of Vassar, of students in the Daisy Chain and of Main Building with a a smoky aerial picture of Vassar's "probable site in New Haven.... It overlooks factory and slums beyond."  "An appeal to preserve Vassar in its setting," Ms. Sieberling concluded, "is often dismissed as sentimental nostalgia.  To this alumna, Vassar's historic campus, its beauty, calm and amplitude constitute values vital to education and to life; they are a rare heritage of the past most in need of preservation today.  How dare they do it?"     LIFE

Wiley Jackson, housing chairman of the Northern Dutchess chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and a member of the Poughkeepsie Housing Committee, led a discussion on "Fair Housing in Poughkeepsie." The city was among the finalists for a federal "Model Cities" grant under the Johnson administration's "War on Poverty," and public housing and neighborhood improvement were key elements in its proposal.

In November 1967 Poughkeepsie was one of the 63 communities eligible for "Model Cities" grants.

After two days of discussion of reports from the Committee on New Dimensions and from the affiliation study headed by President Simpson and Yale’s president Kingman Brewster, Jr., the board of trustees announced that “no decision has been reached” on the proposed affiliation between Vassar and Yale.  “The several studies,” said Secretary of the College Lynn C. Bartlett, “are still under serious consideration.  The trustees will meet as often as may be required to further this consideration.”     The New York Times

Indian dancer and choreographer Dr. Manjusri Chaki-Sircar presented a program of her classical dances.

The Anna Sokolow Theatre/Dance Ensemble performed.  In addition to her ensemble work, blending the lyric and the stark images of contemporary life, Sokolow , a student of Martha Graham, was the Broadway choreographer of Street Scene, Camino Real, Candide and  the original production of Hair.

Topologist W. Wistar Comfort from Wesleyan University lectured on "The Marriage Lemma: A Fixed-Point Theorem in Banach Space." 

The Dean's Program held a conference on "Problems of Urban Poverty—Strategy for Slums," "to discuss effective methods to deal with the problem of urban poverty." The conference included: the founder of American community organizing, Saul Alinsky, Franklin Thomas, the newly-appointed president of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation ; political scientist John Bailey; East Harlem community leader Ruth Atkins;  Poughkeepsie city planner Julio Vivas; Lou Glasse, co-founder of the “Good Neighbor Pledge,” a project in aid of racial integration in Poughkeepsie; Poughkeepsie City Manager Theodore Maurer; Ron Gregory and Zion Page.

Pioneer in superconductivity and quarks, physicist William M. Fairbank from Stanford University, gave the Research Society of America (RESA) Lecture, entitled "Low Temperatures: A Frontier of Physics," to the Sigma Xi Club.  Established in 1959, the club was a preliminary step in the establishment in 1995 of a chapter of Sigma Xi, a national honorary scientific society open to faculty members with associate membership for outstanding students.

Social critic, editor and journalist Dwight MacDonald posed the question "How Democratic Can A Culture Get?"  Appreciating, in The Miscellany News, that the "longtime political and literary critic proved to be as witty and bombastic with his rhetoric as he can be in his writing," Ellen Chesler '69 stated the evident answer to MacDonalds's question—"Not very."  "What MacDonald wants," she wrote, "is two cultures, one for the 'masses' and another for the 'cultural classes.'  The burden of culture in history has never been carried by more than 20 percent of the people, he says....  He claims that culture is something that implies discrimination and standards and that only a minority of any society is willing to have these standards.  But he points out that since the 19th century, industry has provided means for mass production of culture, and public education has provided a mass market for it."

A former editor of Partisan Review and staff writer for The New Yorker, MacDonald published Against the American Grain: Essays on the Effect of Mass Culture in 1962 and Our Invisible Poor in 1963.

A conference on the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, hosted by the college in conjunction with the State University of New York at New Paltz, began at New Paltz with a lecture by New Paltz Professor Harry Schwartz.  A member of the editorial board of The New York Times and the newspaper's specialist on Soviet affairs, Professor Schwartz spoke on "Fifty Years of the Bolshevik Revolution."  Events at Vassar at the weekend included panels on Soviet economy, foreign policy, intellectual life and literature.

Professor Herbert Levine, a specialist in Soviet economic planning at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Harry Braverman, editor of the Socialist Monthly Review, and Professor Lynn Turgeon, a scholar of Soviet industry and labor at Hofstra University spoke on "The Russian Revolution: 50 Years of Economic Change.  "Fifty Years of Soviet Foreign Policy" were examined in a lecture by Professor Alexander Dallin, the Adlai E. Stevenson Professor of International Relations at Columbia University.

Focusing on "The Cultural Impact of the Revolution," Russian émigré historian Marc Raeff from Columbia spoke on "The Revolutiion and the Russian Intelligentsia," Professor George Gibian, chair of the department of Russian at Cornell University, examined "A Half Century of Soviet Literature: Issues, Achievements, Problems" and John Githens from Vassar's Russian department described "Metaphoric Avatars of October in Mandelstam and Mayakovsky."

Sponsored by the economics, history, political science and Russian departments and supported by the Matthew Vassar Lecture Fund and the Crego Endowment, the conference concluded with a concert by the Yale Russian Chorus, a group of some 40 undergraduates, graduate students and faculty members which toured in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.  "The conference," explained one of the event's planners, Vassar political scientist Suzanne Lotarski, "is not a celebration of the anniversary of the revolution but an educational opportunity to evaluate a timely and much discussed event."     The Miscellany News

The Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego '32 in honor of her father, sponsored annual lectures in the general field of economics under the auspices of the economics department.

Philosopher and linguist Dr. Jerrold J. Katz from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology lectured on "Interference and Opacity." Katz’s The Philosophy of Language appeared in 1966.

Donald Pearson, professor of music and college organist, performed a Dedication Recital on the new Gress-Miles chapel organ. The new instrument, built by the Gress-Miles Organ Company of Princeton, NJ, had four manuals and pedal, 106 ranks and 5,700 pipes, and occupied the same space and the same hand-carved façade designed by architects Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge in 1904 for the original chapel organ.  A reception in the Chapel's choir rehearsal room followed the recital.

Handwriting and documents expert Elizabeth McCarthy '17, lectured on "Crimes in Ink."  A lawyer and one of the country’s leading handwriting experts, McCarthy gave testimony in the Kennedy assassination and the Alger Hiss investigations.  While investigating Boston mayoral nomination documents in 1967, she discovered that her own name had been forged.

The Dean's Program hosted a lecture by Bob Moore, organizer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, on "The Black Movement in America and the Role of White People."   Moore was imprisoned for his participation in Julian Bond’s “Atlanta Project,” the registration of black voters and the protest of Bond’s ejection from the Georgia legislature.

Anthropologist Bruce E. Raemsch from Hartwick College lectured on "Recent Evidence of Man in New York 35,000 Years Ago." Raemsch’s extensive collection of artifacts are in the Yager Museum of Art and Culture at Hartwick.

The college announced that, after a year’s study of affiliation with Yale University, Vassar would  “remain in its birthplace” and “the mistress in our house.”  The trustees said that Yale and Vassar, as two institutions, each “engaged in expanding its reach through its own invention, will serve the interests of higher education better than one.”  Further, the trustees said that the decision to remain in Poughkeepsie was “influenced by loyalty to a place as spacious and beautiful as ours, by confidence in the future of our region…and by our commitment to the education of women.”

Interviewed by The New York Times, President Alan Simpson said that the decision to abandon affiliation with Yale was reached with difficulty. But, he said the Vassar trustees endorsed an alternate plan—"Vassar will remain in Poughkeepsie and undergo a multi-million dollar expansion...including proposals for a coordinate men's college, graduate institutes, curricular innovations, and a residential unit in New York."   Simpson added that the men’s college would be at least minimally operative within five years.  In this alternative plan, "Two autonomous institutes, one for the Study of Man and his Environment and another for the Advancement of Teaching will be launched to serve both graduate and undergraduate men and women." They will offer degrees at the M.A. level and will also conduct research.  The 14-page alternative plan, which would cost $50 to $70 million, was given to the faculty for discussion and reaction.

Campus reaction to the trustees’ decision was generally favorable.  “Yale,” one student told The Times, “is a nice place to visit, but we wouldn’t want to live there.  Why? Just think of losing this gorgeous place and going to a large university.  We get close enough to the Yale boys now.”  Another student added “Everyone seems to think that the school needed something.  I want to see what they’re going to do here.  I’m waiting for that.”

A nearly simultaneous statement by Yale president Kingman Brewster, Jr., said that the Vassar decision was “a disappointment to me,” but announced plans for a new women’s college of some 1,500 students to be developed at a cost of between $50 and $70 million.  An editorial in The Yale Daily the following day was similarly bittersweet, saying, “Yale’s gentlemen have been jilted.  All we can do is take it like men and join President Brewster in considering the even more exciting possibility of founding an independent women’s college here.”     The New York Times, The Miscellany News

English literary critic and scholar Christopher Ricks, Worcester College, Oxford, lectured on "Milton's 'Lycidas.'"  Ricks’s highly regarded Milton’s Grand Style (1963) was followed by his edition of Milton’s Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained in 1968.

Sister Jacqueline Grennan, president of Webster College, gave the Helen Kenyon Lecture, entitled, "Can the Academic World Seek the Living God?"

Greek architect, city planner and visionary Constantinos Doxiadis lectured on "Man and His City."   The lead architect for the Pakistani capital Islamabad (1960), Doxiadis’s Ekistics: An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements appeared in 1968.

Calvin Marsh, Metropolitan Opera baritone and composer-pianist, performed.

Asked by Barbara Walters on NBC's Today Show if Vassar was planning on some form of coeducation President Alan Simpson said yes, that this was part of the trustees' plan for the future of the college. He said, according to The Miscellany News, he had come to the college, in 1964, with an open mind on the question, although he was a bit inclined towards segregation of the sexes. A Sarah Lawrence graduate and thus preferring the single-sex approach, Walters asked why coeducation was a good idea. "Mr. Simpson noted that Vassar was founded to give women the same education available to men at top colleges when women were not admitted to such institutions.... Women are now admitted to most schools for segregation of the sexes is historical. Coeducation is a growing irreversible trend.... When asked why Vassar had turned down the Yale merger, Mr. Simpson again cited the desire for independence and a sense of place."

On the Vietnamese Tet holiday, Vietcong units sprang into action throughout South Vietnam, attacking more than 100 towns and villages with sapper commando units that were followed by waves of heavily armed troops.  The fighting created more than 500,000 refugees, and, while Vietcong deaths were some 37,000 with many more wounded or captured, the 2,500 American deaths in the assault dealt a crippling blow to public support of the war.
Kathleen Weil-Garris Posner ‘56, scholar of the Renaissance and professor of fine arts at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, gave the Class of 1928 Visiting Scholar's Lecture, entitled "Bramante and Sansovino: The Creation of a High Renaissance Sanctuary."
Philosopher Frederick A. Olafson from Harvard University, lectured on "Philosophy and the Humanities." Olafson’s Principles and Persons: An Ethical Interpretation of Existentialism was published in 1967.
Dr. Imogene Horsley, professor of music at Carleton College, lectured on "Aspects of Tonality in Lasso and Gesualdo."
Clyde Griffen, dean of freshmen and history department faculty member, was designated to conduct a study of the alternatives for a coordinate college for men at Vassar.
Behavioral psychologist and social philosopher B. F. Skinner, Harvard University, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Lecture on new approaches to behavior analysis.

Speakers at a four-day symposium on "The New Morality," sponsored by the Dean's Program and discussing “personal, social, and religious aspects of morality” included physician and sex education advocate Dr. Mary Steichen Calderone ’25, poet and activist Alan Ginsberg, neo-orthodox theologian and social activist William Stringfellow and Vassar Chaplain Frederic C. Wood.

A founder in 1964 and the executive director of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), "We argue about sex, Dr. Calderone told her audience, "as we would argue about whether a car we've never seen, never driven and don't know the mechanics of could win the Gran Prix. If we are to create a valid morality about sexuality, we'll have to know about man's sexuality.... Man's sexuality needs to be studied, researched and treated with a little more respect and dignity."

"If rules must be posed," wrote Alison Luchs '70 in The Miscellany News, "Dr. Calderone demanded that they be honest ones, based on 'a relationship of mutual respect between the power group and the group over which they have power. When we make a rule like "no men in girls' rooms after 9:00 p.m.," we have to be clear in our terminology.... If you mean no students are to have intercourse on the grounds of the college, or while they are students at the college, then say so.' Few students in her audience could argue with her sincere approach. But even fewer could imagine a rule stated that explicitly in the Vassar handbook."

Writing in The Misc. about Allen Ginsberg's peripatetic visit to Vassar, its several informal discussions—in the Gold Parlor, in Cushiing Living Room—and it's culmination on Saturday evening before a capacity crowd in the Chapel, Susan Casteras '71, said, "Perhaps the most powerful and ironic ability of the man was his capacity to make an audience of either one or 1,000 more than just comfortable in his presence; to make them actually close to him.  He had the power to infuse into his audience a gripping sense of this closeness.  

"The reading provided a somewhat frightening opportunity to infuse into his audience a man baring his intellect and his consciousness, leaving himself in a state of emotional nakedness.  After the poetry reading, he asked...members of the audience how they had reacted to the evening.  When someone mentioned that it had been painful to watch a man so self-absorbed in the verbal and emotional stripping of himself, Ginsberg nodded and said he had felt that way."

Concluding the symposium in his Sunday Chapel sermon,"The New Old Morality," Vassar Chaplain Frederic C. Wood, Jr., said Christiane Citron '71, in The Miscellany News, "pointed out that the so-called new morality involves a new ethical attitude, not a new set of literalized rules; the rules are still the Commandments.... He wants the individual to establish the principle of love of God (and neighbor) within himself, and then to be guided in every action by this internal principle." Enumerating four main aspect to this form of morality, Wood identified the most fundamental aspect, said Citron, was "the priority to be given the spirit over the letter of the law.... It is up to the individual determine the sprit of the law.  Therefore the morality is antinomian: one can in specific instance go against the law....

"Secondly, this...morality asserts the internal, rather than the external source of values.... Everyone has to realize the importance in its own right of his decisions.... In addition, he said this 'new old morality' draws a distinction between freedom and responsibility in one's behavior.... Finally, Mr. Wood concluded, implicit in this morality is its religious nature, for without some sort of ultimate commitment, the morality is meaningless.... Mr. Wood added that although this guidance is religious in nature, it is not necessarily religious in form."

William Sloane Coffin, Jr., Yale University, lectured on "Vietnam and the draft: Crisis of Conscience."   One of some 20,000 signatories the previous year of “A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority,” Coffin was, along with Dr. Benjamin Spock, Mitchell Goodman, Michael Ferber and Marcus Raskin, one of the “Boston Five” indicted by a Federal grand jury on January 5, 1968, on conspiracy charges.  Four of the five, including Coffin, were convicted, but their conviction was overturned in 1970.
Argentine writer and critic Jorge Luis Borges lectured on "The Fantastic in Argentine Literature.”  In 1961, Borges and Samuel Beckett shared the first International Publishers Prize, the Prix Formentor.  The start, in 1967, of his collaboration with translator Norman Thomas di Giovanni brought Borges’s complex works—long admired in Latin America—to the attention of readers in the English-speaking world. 

Former Harvard lecturer in psychology and founder of the League for Spiritual Discovery Dr. Timothy Leary lectured in the Students’ Building on the "Conflict of Men and the Use of Drugs in Modern Society."   The advocate of spiritual discovery through the use of psychedelic drugs had expressed interest in speaking at Vassar during an earlier interview with The Miscellany News, and he reportedly waived his customary $1,500 fee.   “No drug is either ‘bad’ or ‘good,’” Leary told his audience, “but using makes it so.”

Leary’s league, founded in 1963, was for several years housed at a 2,500 acre estate near Millbrook, NY, owned by heirs to the Mellon banking fortune.  On February 19, lawyers for the estate’s owners had announced that the League for Spiritual Discovery and two other groups, the Neo-American Church—headed by Chief Boo Hoo—and the Sri Ram Ashrama, had been ordered to leave the premises.

Writing to The Vassar Alumnae/i Quarterly in 2007, two members of the Class of 1971 reflected on the event.  “…one thing I recall with perfect clarity” said one, “he gave his lecture sitting on the floor of the stage (no podium, no chair) with his legs crossed, barefoot—and the bottoms of his feet were filthy!”  “I do not know,” said the other, “who invited him or why, but even then I knew he was a drugged-out jackass with nothing to impart to me.  I stayed away in droves.”     The Vassar Alumnae/i Quarterly
American poet and feminist Adrienne Rich read from her work.  Her collection, Necessities of Life: Poems, 1962-65 was published in 1966 and Selected Poems appeared in 1967.
Artist, critic and biographer of his aunt, Virginia Woolf, Quentin Bell, professor of art history and theory at the University of Sussex, lectured on "Bloomsbury Painters and Writers."
Botanist Harry A. Borthwick, United States Department of Agriculture, gave the Helen Gates Putnum Conservation Lecture, entitled "Light Control of Plant Movements."
American linguist and scholar Margaret Schlauch, professor emeritus of English at the University of Warsaw and member of the Committee on Modern Languages and Literatures of the Polish Academy, lectured on "The Value of Linguistic Studies to Literary Critics."
Vassar's madrigal singers departed for a two-week Scandinavian concert tour.
Controversial Catholic theologian Rev. Fr. Hans Küng, professor of ecumenical theology at the University of Tübingen, Germany, lectured on "The Problems and Future of the Church."  Among Fr. Küng’s struggles with Catholic hierarchy was his reasoned rejection of the doctrine of papal infallibility, which became widely known through his book, Infallible? An Inquiry (1971). Because of Kung's rejection of the doctrine, part of the official teaching of the Catholic Church since 1871, Pope John Paul II revoked Küng's missio canonica in 1979, stripping him of his right to teach in any Catholic institution in Germany.
President Lyndon Johnson announced that “I shall not seek and I will not accept the nomination of my party as your President,” surprising most observers with this recognition of the “division in the American house” over the war in Vietnam and civil unrest at home.  “With American sons in the field far away,” he said, “with the American future under challenge right here at home, with our hopes and the world’s hopes for peace in the balance every day, I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office, the Presidency of your country.”     The New York Times
The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, TN.

Rioting, looting and arson broke out in dozens of cities, most notably in Washington, DC, Baltimore and Chicago.  On Chicago’s west side two days of lawlessness left 11 people—all African Americans—dead, almost 3,000 arrested and over 200 building damaged beyond repair.

Canadian philanthropist and designer Phyllis Bronfman Lambert '48, lectured on "The Construction of a Modern Building."  The planner of the Saidye Bronfman Centre for the Arts in Montreal (1967), she was also director of planning for the Seagram Building (1958) in New York City, by the Bronfman Centre’s architect, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
The Dean's Program held a symposium, "Focus on India." Speakers included Bengali literary critic and poet Dr. Amiya Chakravarty and Swami Sarvagatananda, chaplain to Hindu students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the minister to the Hindu communities in Boston and Providence, known as the “Sunshine in Boston.”
Lt. Col. Arch E. Roberts, U.S. Army, Ret., lectured on the United States' involvement in Vietnam.   Lt. Col. Roberts’s book, Victory Denied: Why Your Son Faces Death in No-Win Wars, was published in 1966.
The college canceled classes in order to allow students and faculty to participate in a memorial march through Poughkeepsie to honor the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
Political scientist and pioneer in the field of environmental policy Lynton Caldwell, Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science at Indiana University, gave the Gussie and Israel Matz Lecture, entitled "Shaping the Environment of Civilized Societies."  Caldwell was a principal architect of the United States’ National Environmental Policy Act (1970) the first in the world.
Philosopher of Renaissance humanism Paul Oscar Kristellar, Frederick J. E. Woodbridge Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University, lectured on "The European Significance of Florentine Platonism."
Member institutions of Ivy League and the Seven College Conference sent acceptance letters to candidates for the Class of 1972, and overall figures showed that applications to the men’s schools increased ten and one-half percent over the previous year while applications to the women’s colleges decreased by five percent.  Among the Seven Colleges, Vassar’ applications declined most steeply at 14 percent, followed by Bryn Mawr (11 ½ percent), Wellesley (4 ½ percent) and Smith (4 percent).  Applications to Radcliffe increased by three percent.

Vassar accepted 50 percent of the applicants for its 400 freshman places, compared to acceptance rates of 35 percent, 46 percent and 48 percent at, respectively, Wellesley, Smith and Mount Holyoke.  Radcliffe accepted 13 percent of its applicants.

Both the Ivies and the Seven Sisters noted increased recruitment and enrollment of students of color, students prepared at public schools and students living outside the Northeast.  Admissions Director Jean L. Harry ’33 said that Vassar had admitted twice the number of black students as in 1967, and she credited the help of the student Afro-American Society in recruitment.  “These Negro girls at Vassar,” she said, “can talk to their friends about the total experience, academic and social, in a way we cannot.”     The New York Times

American historian Christopher Lasch from Northwestern University, gave the second C. Mildred Thompson Lecture of the academic year, entitled "The Ambiguities of Equality: The Idea of Asylum in Nineteenth Century Reform."  A liberal critic of liberalism, Lasch published The American Liberals and the Russian Revolution in 1962, and his The New Radicalism in America appeared in 1965.

The Thompson lectureship, given by an anonymous donor, honored American historian C. Mildred Thompson '03, who taught in the history department from 1910 until 1923, when she became Vassar's dean, a position she held until her retirement in 1948. Dean Thompson died in 1975.

Eve Borsook '49, New York University, gave the 1928 Fund Lecture, entitled "The Florence Flood: Damage and Discovery."  A specialist in the analysis and restoration of Italian mural painting, Borsook was also an accomplished photographer of such work.  Her The Mural Painters of Tuscany, From Cimabue to Andrea Del Sarto was published in 1960, and in 1966 her study of the Sienese muralist, Ambrogio Lorenzetti appeared.  She collaborated with the dean of Italian mural scholars, Leonetto Tintori, on Giotto: The Peruzzi Chapel in 1965.

An article in The Miscellany News by Assistant Professor of Sociology Martin Oppenheimer called upon the Vassar administration to “publicly state that the college does not condone the use of informers on this campus.”  Charging that local law enforcement “has had at least one student here act as an informer on the drug scene” and had “attempted to solicit other informers from the student body,” Oppenheimer declared, “the atmosphere of suspicion and mutual distrust is far more damaging to education and democracy” than drug experimentation.

Secretary of the College Lynn C. Bartlett, agreeing that the issues raised by Oppenheimer’s article were serious ones, said that student meetings were being conducted in the residence halls to discuss the drug situation.  College chaplain Frederic Wood declared that tolerance of informers on campus was “subversive to the educational climate.”

In his article, Oppenheimer noted that a recent survey had shown that one-third to one-fifth of the students at Vassar had used marijuana at least once.  But, he said, “We have neither the obligation to do the work of the police…nor to protect students from the due course of justice….”     The New York Times

Donald M. Frame, professor of French at Columbia University, gave the Phi Beta Kappa Lecture, entitled "Montaigne on the Absurdity and Dignity of Man." The translator and editor of Complete Works of Montaigne in 1958, Frame’s life of the 16th century French essayist and statesman, Montaigne: A Biography, appeared in 1965.
Some 300 student protestors, among them members of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), were joined by campus groups and local groups such the United Black Front, the Congress of Racial Equality and the Harlem Committee for Self-Defense in seizing the office of the dean of Columbia University.  The acting dean, Henry Coleman, explained that he had no control over the protestors’ goals—the siting of a new gymnasium on Columbia property in Harlem, which the protestors condemned as “racist” and Columbia government contracts with Institute of Defense Analysis—and, saying “It’s getting too crowded here and we’re going to have trouble,” retired to his office.

After a week of mounting protests and the seizure by protestors of five university buildings—including the office of university president Grayson Kirk—on April 30, some 1,000 New York City police moved onto campus and in an attempt to regain control of the buildings.  Classes were suspended as the protests and building takeovers continued, and a review panel, headed by former United States Solicitor General Archibald Cox, a professor at the Harvard Law School, undertook analysis and resolution of the turmoil.

In late May, the university appointed a “director of student interests,” Assistant Dean Irving DeKoff, and over the summer, efforts by administrators, faculty and alumni to restore order and accommodate student issues alternated with the preparation for court trials of some 1,000 student protestors.  Two women students, both in the School of General Studies, were fined $250 and jailed for 15 days.     The New York Times

The coiner of the phrase “Think globally, act locally,” French microbiologist, environmentalist and humanist Rene Dubos from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, gave the Gussie and Israel Matz Fund Lecture, entitled "Biological Advantages of Urban Life."  Dubos’s book, So Human and Animal: How We Are Shaped by Surroundings and Events won the Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction in 1968.
Enzymologist C. H. W. Hirs, from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, lectured on "Slide Chain Reactivity and the Structure of Ribonuclease."
The Dean's Program held a symposium entitled, "The New Left Reappraisal of the Cold War: American Foreign Policy 1945-65," to examine the historiography of the Cold War.  Guest speakers included: diplomatic historian Lloyd Gardner, Rutgers University; Stanford University historian Barton Bernstein and Yale historian Gaddis Smith.
Ellen Chesler '69 and two Yale students, Steven Weisman '68 and Michael Winger from the Yale Law School, published an analysis of the Vassar-Yale study, "Vassar and Yale Study: the whole story," in Yale's The New Journal.  Among the report’s several accusations was the observation that "The Vassar-Yale affiliation was already doomed six months before it ended."
Writer, educator and activist Johnathon Kozol lectured on "Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools." Kozol’s first book, Death at an Early Age, won the National Book Award in science, philosophy and religion in 1968.
Vassar proposed two new programs benefitting the local community:  in July and August, Vassar would hold a "cultural enrichment and recreational program" for local disadvantaged Poughkeepsie children; and in the fall Vassar would admit with full-scholarship, a number of "non-matriculated," local students of color, who could not meet the regular admissions standards, to be tutored in a remedial program designed to prepare them for college matriculation.
Vassar held a symposium on "Causality." The speakers included philosopher William Ruddick from New York University, Robert Fogelin, associate professor of philosophy at Yale University, and John O'Connor, from Vassar’s philosophy department.
Vassar students petitioned President Alan Simpson to condemn police action recently taken at Columbia University and to promise that such a situation would not happen at Vassar.

The New York Times reported that more than 250 Vassar students and 20 members of the faculty sent a letter to Columbia’s president Grayson Kirk saying that they were “appalled at the violence directed against the students and faculty” by the police.  Vassar Student Association President Alison Bernstein ’69 said she “deplored the tactics of the demonstrators at Columbia but I deplore even more the action of the administration in calling in the police.”  Toni Ackerman ’70 called the use of police force “not only unwise but unwarranted.”

As student protests developed at Columbia, Columbia students visited Vassar and offered informal informational discussions of the events on their campus near the student mailboxes in Main Building.    The New York Times

The committee studying the organization of a men's coordinate college presented its report to President Alan Simpson. Since declining the invitation for a coordinate institution with Yale University in November 1967, the college had considered following the model exemplified by Brown University, which had established a separate women's college, Pembroke College, in 1897. Hamilton College, in Clinton, NY, formed a women's coordinate college, Kirkland College, in 1968, and Mount Holyoke College and Smith were considering similar, but less-formal arrangements in Massachusetts's Pioneer Valley with two coeducational institutions and Amherst College.

The Vassar committee, led by Associate Professor of History Clyde Griffen, presented both pros and cons of founding a coordinate institution, a possibility already referred to on the campus as "Matthew College." In October, the Vassar trustees endorsed instead the formation of a coeducational Vassar College, a decision applauded by The Miscellany News in its October 4 issue: "Social life is commonly regarded as part of the college experience, and most students believe that coeducation offers the only 'normal' life."

Eleanor Dodge Barton '38, chairman of the art department at Sweet Briar College, lectured on "Alessandro Algardi: A case history of a seventeenth century sculptor," part of program, “The Italian Renaissance,” in honor of retiring Leila Cook Barber, chairman of the Vassar art department.

Miss Barber joined the Vassar faculty in 1931 and, in addition to her memorable lectures and her seminars in 14th and 15th century Italian painters, she contributed to the residential community, leading the college’s wartime defense program during World War II and serving, first as resident and then as house fellow, in Josselyn House from 1935 until her retirement.  She was an early faculty supporter of the college’s decision to become coeducational.

Professor Volkmar Sander, founder of New York University’s  Deutsches Haus, lectured on "Bertolt Brecht's Documentary Theater."
A survey to the annual contributions to colleges and universities showed Vassar trailing Smith but ahead of the other members of the Seven College Conference: Smith, $3,922,000; Vassar, $3,852,000; Barnard, $3,413,000; Bryn Mawr, $2,736,000; Mount Holyoke, $2,643,000; Wellesley, $2,187,000 and Radcliffe, $1,926,000.

In the Ivy League, Harvard received $38,346,000 and Yale was given $33,410,000.    The New York Times

The faculty recommended that the trustees pursue co-education, rather than coordinate education.

While rain pelted the campus, strong opinion rang in the Chapel at Commencement.  In his address New York Mayor John V. Lindsay told the 1,400 guests and members of the Class of 1968 he was “disheartened” by the “irrationality” of the 90th Congress’s response to the report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders—the so-called “riot commission”—of which he was vice chairman.  The report had urged strong efforts to help African Americans get jobs, housing and education, but Congress, Lindsay said, “has been moving in the opposite direction."

“Typical of the response by Congress,” he said, “was the recent action of the House Appropriations Committee in cutting by fully 50 percent the amount of funds requested by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.  The Federal Bureau of Investigation, however, was awarded the entire appropriation it submitted.  This divergence of values, this irrationality of national purpose, is indicative of a nation that has lost its way.  It confuses the need to maintain our society with the need to rebuild our society.”

Frequent applause interrupted Lindsay’s 30-minute address, and many of the 413 members of ’68 who had been holding daisies or carnations as they listened handed the blooms to him as they walked past to receive their diplomas, some whispering “Flower Power.”  At the end of the ceremony, Mary Lindsay ’47 approached her husband, “who looked a little sheepish sitting with his little bouquet in the lap of his blue and black academic robe,” saying, “John, you look just like a bride.”     Richard Reeves, The New York Times

New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy, brother of President John F. Kennedy and candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 1968 presidential election, was shot in Los Angeles shortly after winning the California primary election.  He died 26 hours later.
The board of trustees accepted the Forward Planning Committee's resolution to "adopt a policy of admission of male undergraduate students on a wholly coeducational basis." The trustees asked Dean Nell Eurich to draw up a plan for the timing, recruitment, needed construction and funds to achieve coeducation.

The resulting goal was to reach a student body of 2,400 with a 1:1 male/female ratio by 1975. The plan also proposed major construction to be done "regardless of the increased student body," including apartments/dormitories between the golf course and Sunset Lake, two main dining halls—rather than the proposed large dining hall to be located in the middle of the quad—a new science building and an experimental theater.

“We’re constantly aware of the turmoil at Columbia University,” Secretary of the College Lynn C. Bartlett told The New York Times as Vassar’s fall orientation began.  “It has taught us all that unless you listen to students and take them seriously you’re in trouble.  Beginning right now with orientation we want to show them we feel this way.”  A list including The Autobiography of Malcolm X and Black Power, by Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton, replaced the usual European and American classics as required summer reading for the 419 members of the Class of 1972.  “We want to show freshmen,” political science Professor Glen Johnson, the dean of freshmen, declared, “that, contrary to students’ major criticism now, college can be relevant to real life.  This demonstrates that intellectual pursuits at college can relate to the vital issues facing the country.”      The New York Times  
Twenty men sponsored by local companies, enrolled in chemistry, physics and mathematics courses on a trial basis, becoming the first male students enrolled at Vassar since the college enrolled veterans after the World War II.
Former Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs Charles Frankel, professor of philosophy and public affairs at Columbia University, began work as planning director of the proposed Institute for the Advancement of College and University Teaching at Vassar.
A report prepared for the State University of New York called for a Mid-Hudson Graduate Center at Vassar College to be affiliated with 38 other area institutions. President Alan Simpson welcomed the possibility.

Negotiations began between six men's colleges (Bowdoin, Amherst, Dartmouth, Williams, Colgate, and Trinity) and Vassar to begin an exchange program next semester. By December, approximately 70 Vassar women and 70-80 men from Colgate, Williams, and Trinity registered in the exchange.

 “Men in classes and on campus is the only way to prevent stagnancy,” declared Susan Casteras ‘71, managing editor of The Miscellany News,” when interviewed by The New York Times about a new exchange program with Williams.  But Janet Stanton ’72 had doubts about both coeducation at Vassar and the plans to achieve it.  “The way we’re doing it,” she said, “will take many years and probably after that Vassar will be a second rate school.  We’ll have to refuse qualified women and take unqualified men.”

As the fall progressed, trustees at other men’s colleges approved a student exchange with Vassar, and faculty exchanges were also discussed.  At his inauguration on October 12th, Trinity president Theodore D. Lockwood announced that a Vassar exchange would make the college “coeducational on a trial basis” and that the Trinity trustees had approved the immediate start of a coeducation feasibility study.   Colgate University joined the exchange ten days later.

Marine malacologist Melbourne R. Carriker, from the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Conservation Lecture, entitled "Biology of Shell Penetration of Oysters by Their Predator, the Boring Snail."
Father Pierre Benoit, director of l’École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem, lectured on "The Evolution of the Ancient City of Jerusalem."

German-born cultural historian Peter Gay, professor of history at Columbia University, gave the C. Mildred Thompson Lecture, "The Enlightenment: Dead or Alive."  Gay’s The Enlightenment: An Interpretation: Vol. 1, The Rise of Modern Paganism (1966) was awarded the National Book Award in history for 1967, and his Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider appeared in 1968.

The Thompson lectureship, given by an anonymous donor, honored American historian C. Mildred Thompson '03, who taught in the history department from 1910 until 1923, when she became Vassar's dean, a position she held until her retirement in 1948.  Dean Thompson died in 1975.

Vassar College and Trinity College agreed to establish an exchange program.
Padraic Colum, Irish poet and playwright, gave the 1928 Fund Lecture, entitled "Yeats and the Irish Cultural Movement."  An early collaborator with Yeats in the Irish National Theatre, Colum and his wife Mary befriended James Joyce and assisted in the transcription of his Finnegan’s Wake (1939).  The Colums’ Our Friend James Joyce appeared in 1958.

Professor Bernard Berofsky, philosopher of free will, moral responsibility and determinism at Columbia University, spoke on "Purposive Action" at Philosophers' Holiday, a longstanding series of occasional lectures sponsored by the philosophy department. The term, Marsha Levine '72 wrote in The Miscellany News, was "his own definition" for "the features that he feels distinguish such action from the teleological behavior of machines and animals.... Mr. Berofsky presented his arguments in a clear, vigorous, predominately non-technical style: he illustrated each point with familiar and often amusing examples.  The result was an illuminating hour and a refreshing change from some previous Philosophers' Holiday lectures, which were comprehensible perhaps to the initiated, but mysterious and bewildering to laymen in the audience."

Bernard Berofsky, who taught briefly at Vassar and who spoke again at the college on "Responsibility and Necessity: The Metaphysical Character of Free Will Debate" in February 1974, published Free Will and Determinism in 1966.  Princeton University Press published his Determinism in 1971.

he board of trustees approved Vassar’s acceptance of male transfer students for 1969-70 and the admission of freshman men in the fall of 1970. The board also petitioned the New York State Board of Regents for amendment of the charter of the college, giving it the right to grant degrees to men.
Vassar College and Colgate University agreed to an exchange program for the following semester.
Scholar, translator and interpretor, Japonologist Donald Keene, University Professor of Japanese Literature at Columbia University, lectured on "Two Modern Japanese Poets: Shiki and Takuboku."
Ten colleges (Amherst, Bowdoin, Connecticut College, Dartmouth, Mount Holyoke, Smith, Vassar, Wesleyan, Wheaton and Williams) discussed ways in which they might cooperate, particularly through exchanges, in order to offer students better educational opportunities.
Yugoslav-born American moral and political theorist, Thomas Nagel, Princeton University, lectured on "War and Murder."
Professor of Mathematics Morris Kline, New York University, lectured on "Logic and Truth in Mathematics."  Kline’s interest in cultural perception of mathematics and the teaching of mathematics led to such works as Mathematics, A Cultural Approach (1962), Calculus, an Intuitive and Physical Approach (1967), Mathematics for Liberal Arts (1967) and Mathematics in the Modern World (1968).
Operation Rolling Thunder, the U. S. bombing of airfields and supporting sites in North Vietnam that began on March 2, 1965, ended.  Over 900 American aircraft were lost and 818 pilots were either dead or missing.  By U. S. estimates, some 182,000 North Vietnamese civilians died.
A conference of students, faculty, administration, and trustees gathered at Lake Minnewaska to discuss decision-making processes and new directions open to the college.
Hedda Garza, Socialist Workers' Party candidate for Senate, lectured on "Black Control of the Black Community."   Mrs. Garza, a lifelong advocate for liberal and socialist causes, garnered 4,919 votes in the November 5 election, the least among the seven senatorial candidates.  Incumbent Republican Senator Jacob Javits won with  3,269,772 votes.
Vassar students were among the 700 women from 22 Eastern colleges who participated in Coeducation Week at Yale.  Approved by the Yale administration under strong undergraduate pressure, the project was intended, according to Aviam Soifer ’69, the head of the student steering committee, to allow “the sexes to meet over coffee, over lunch or whatever, and just get accustomed to each other.”

“I just came to see what its like to go to school with men,” Vassar sophomore Jean Brenner ’70 explained as she prepared to move into the room vacated by Frank Knoblauch, one of over half the Yale undergraduates who volunteered to give up their rooms for the project.  “The idea,” Mr. Soifer explained, “is to take the male-female relationship out of the absurdly pressured situation of the weekend date.  A lot of the guys think of women simply as objects, or dumb broads, but they’re human beings, too.”

Yale President Kingman Brewster, Jr. cited the success of “Coeducation Week” on November 14th when announcing that the university would admit 500 women as freshmen the following September.     The New York Times

Former Vice President Richard Nixon defeated the Democratic Vice President Hubert Humphrey and American Independent party candidate George Wallace to become the 37th President of the United States.

Czech philosopher Julius Tomin from the Charles University in Prague, lectured on the "Impact of Recent Events in Czechoslovakia on Marxist Theory and Practice."  The junior fellowship on the faculty of philosophy of the sometimes controversial Plato scholar deteriorated abruptly with the August, 1968, Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia that ended the reforms of the “Prague Spring.”  Returning to Prague in 1970 after a visiting professorship at the University of Hawaii, Tomin worked as a turbine operator and started holding clandestine philosophy seminars for students excluded from the university because of their political views.

Tomin sought support from Western academics and, in 1980, lecturing on Aristotle at one of Tomin’s “seminars,” the visiting Master of Baliol College, Oxford, Anthony Kenney was arrested by Czech police.  The uproar in the British press led to the formation of the Jan Hus Foundation—named after a 13th Czech reformer—which aided Tomin’s emigration to England with his family later that year.

Composer and musical theorist James Tenney, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, lectured on "Computer Generations of Music."   Tenney’s interest in computer generation, alternative instruments and tunings and taped or other recorded sound allied him with Steve Reich, John Cage, Phillip Glass and the player-piano composer Conlon Nancarrow.
Assistant Professor Margaret Dauler Wilson ‘60, from the Rockefeller Institute, lectured on "Concept, Cause, and Object: Kant's Reply to Hume."  
Russian-American economist Wassily Leontief from Harvard University, gave the Martin H. Crego Lecture, entitled "To Grow Or Not to Grow."  Leontief was awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize in economics for his use of input-output tables in the development of  “input-output analysis.”

The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego ’32, in honor of her father, sponsored an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department.

The eminent New York University musicologist Jan LaRue, a founding member and director of the Mozart Society, spoke on "A Unique Monument to Friendship: Mozart's Quartets Dedicated to Haydn." LaRue, whose Catalogue of 18th Century Symphonies (1988) contained 17,000 entries, definitively identified a recently discovered 15-minute symphony in 1985 as a work by the 12-year old Mozart, his first in a minor key.

Lawyer Theodore Sorenson, advisor and White House Counsel to President John F. Kennedy, gave the Barbara Bailey Brown Lecture, entitled "Whose Law and Order?"

The Barbara Bailey Brown Fund, was established in 1966 by the Class of 1932 in memory of their classmate Barbara Bailey '32 in support of programs and lectures fostering international understanding.

Dutchess County neighbor and frequent Vassar visitor, folk singer Pete Seeger performed.
The Hungarian String Quartet performed "The Six Mozart Quartets Dedicated to Haydn."  Founded in Budapest in 1935, the preeminent European chamber ensemble moved to the United States in 1950 and disbanded in 1972.
Art historian Sheldon Nodelman, Yale University, gave the Class of 1928 Fund Lecture, entitled "Illusion and the Arts of Reality: Some Thought on the Plastic Arts in the Sixties and After."
American scholar and cultural critic Benjamin DeMott, Amherst College, lectured on "Culture and Society."  DeMott’s Supergrow: Essays and Reports on Imagination in America appeared in 1969.
Danish scholar Elias Bredsdorff, widely acclaimed for his biography of Hans Christian Andersen, published in 1975, lectured on "Interplay of Word and Image in the Modern Theater." For many years Bresdorff was head of the Scandinavian studies department at Cambridge University.
Spanish art critic and literary biographer and critic Ricardo Gullón, University of Texas, lectured on "Una Relectura de Doña Perfecta."
Former United Nations aide Christopher Thorn, newly appointed president of the American University in Cairo, lectured on "Life and Higher Education in Egypt Today."
Twenty-some students staged a five-and-a-half hour sit-in demonstration in the office of Nell Eurich, dean of the faculty, demanding the extension of professor Roger Katan's contract to include the following semester.   Katan, an architect and “advocacy planner,” was visiting professor in the political science department.
American author, political activist and rabbi Arthur I. Waskow, co-founder of the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, D. C., lectured on "The Next Thirty Years of American History."
Jacob Bean, founder and curator of the drawings department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, lectured on "Italian Draughtsmen of the 17th Century."
Steven Cahn, New York University, lectured on "The Performer as Creator: An Analysis of the Role of the Performer in Music."
French-American nutritionist Jean Mayer, Harvard School of Public Health, lectured on "The Ethics of Birth Control."   An internationally known expert on nutrition and world hunger, Mayer frequently cited arguments for population control—some going back to ancient Greece—as ethical as well as pragmatic issues.
Aesthetician, film and media theorist and philosopher of language Alexander Sesonske, from the University of California at Santa Barbara, lectured on "Cinema Space."
The college opened with 77 male exchange students under the new exchange arrangements with Trinity, Williams and Colgate.  In addition, two students from Wesleyan and one from Haverford were enrolled at Vassar.  Fifty-seven Vassar students enrolled at Trinity, Williams and Colgate, and two were attending Wesleyan.  One Vassar student enrolled at Haverford.
Richard Nixon became the country’s 37th president, succeeding Lyndon Johnson and defeating Vice President Hubert Humphrey.  Nixon vowed to achieve “peace with honor” in Vietnam through a negotiated settlement.
Representatives from the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong met in Paris for peace talks.
Attorney and author Charles Rembar gave the Sharpe Memorial Lecture, "Literary Censorship under the Anti-Obscenity Laws."  In 1959, Rembar successfully litigated the lifting of the American ban on D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover (1928), and in 1968 he published The End of Obscenity: The trials of Lady Chatterley, Tropic of Cancer and Fanny Hill.
Sir Ronald Syme, Camden Professor of Ancient History at Brasenose College, Oxford University, lectured on the "Augustan Poets Without Augustus."  He spoke again at Vassar on “Tolerance and Bigotry in the 4th Century, AD" in 1970.

The student senate passed a resolution for the abolishment of parietals on a college-wide basis.   Realizing that neither enforcement of parietal regulations on male exchange students nor selectively enforcing them for women was suitable, President Simpson approved the senate’s proposal, leaving the decision about men’s visiting hours in the residence halls to a corridor by corridor vote.

Voting on March 5, 1,375 students voted for “no restrictions” on visiting hours, 68 voted for a “limitation” on hours without leaving their present corridors and 10 students voted for “limited visiting hours” even if they had to move.

Elizabeth McCarthy '17, handwriting and document expert, lectured on "Pen Points to Crime."   A lawyer and one of the country’s leading handwriting experts, McCarthy gave testimony in the Kennedy assassination inquiry and the Alger Hiss investigations.  While examining Boston mayoral nomination documents in 1967, she discovered that her own name had been forged

McCarthy lectured on “Crimes in Ink” at Vassar in 1967.

Italian-born art historian Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway from Bryn Mawr College gave the Class of 1928 Lecture on "Sculpture of the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi."  Ridgway’s Severe Style in Greek Sculpture appeared from Princeton University Press in 1970.

In an article entitled “Topics: Ask the Oracle About Coeducation,” Fred M. Hechinger, education editor for The New York Times, analyzed the growing interest in coeducation at previously single-sex colleges and universities.  Calling the Vassar-Yale study “what turned out to be a 100 mile misunderstanding” and imagining a future when all single-sex schools had been coeducational for a time, Hechinger predicted that coeducational housing and other attempts to achieve “productive social interaction” would lead to rancor and, eventually, rebellion.

“After a violent confrontation in the parlor of Bryn Mawr’s coeducational dormitory, in which a Biedermeier vase and a shaving mug were shattered, a moderate Society for Newly Independent Girls (SNIG) will agree to a pilot exchange plan under which all Yale women will spend an all-girl week at Vassar, while all Vassar men will participate in a stag week at Yale.

“The experiment will be pronounced a success.  Two years later, the first women’s college will be founded.”

The Viet Cong attacked 110 targets in South Vietnam, including the capital, Saigon.
Cognitive philosopher James W.  Cornman from the University of Pennsylvania lectured on "Do We Ever Perceive Physical Objects?"  Yale University Press published Cornman’s Materialism and Sensations in 1971.
Songwriter and folk singer Tom Paxton performed in the Chapel.  An activist singer, Paxton sang about civil rights and the war in Vietnam in such songs as “Lyndon Johnson Told the Nation,” “Goodman, Schwerner and Chaney” and “Buy A Gun For Your Son”  (1965), “Talking Vietnam Pot Luck Blues” (1968) and “The Iron Man,” (1969) a song-cycle about Vietnam.
The faculty approved an inter-departmental minor in Afro-American Studies.
Feminist and anti-war poet Muriel Rukeyser ex-'34, read her poetry. Her collection The Speed of Darkness was published in 1968.

Architect and acoustician Cyril M. Harris, Columbia University, gave the Dickinson-Kayden Lecture, "Acoustics, Architecture, and Music."  Harris collaborated with the Danish engineer Vilhelm Jordan on the Metropolitan Opera (1966), and was at work on the design for the Kennedy Center of the Performing Arts in Washington, DC.

Mildred Bernstein Kayden ’42 established the fund in 1966 in honor of the late Professor Emeritus of Music George Sherman Dickinson.

New York’s Supreme Court issued a temporary injunction against the college’s abolition of parietals. Responding to a breach of contract suit brought by a Vassar parent, the injunction required the college to maintain parietals as they were on September 15, 1968.   A first hearing was scheduled for March 17.

President Simpson notified the student body that the former rules—male visitors in the halls from 12:30 pm to 7pm Sunday through Thursday and from 12:30 pm to 11 pm on Friday and Saturday—were in effect until further notice.

The following day, Simpson announced that the stay had been lifted pending the scheduled hearing.  Students were given permission to vote, corridor by corridor, “on altering the [men’s visiting] hours in any way they wanted to, even doing away with them entirely.”      The New York Times

The theme of the annual Soph-Frosh weekend, "Soulful Strut," was exemplified by its highlight, a concert in the Chapel by singer and civil rights activist Nina Simone. The weekend, according to its planner Claudia Thomas '71 one of "Black and blues," also featured a "Stoned Soul Picnic" and a black nightclub group. Ms. Simone, said The Miscellany News, used "her voice as a versatile instrument to se the mood of a concert and alternately to sooth and lash the audience until they loosen up to feel the beauty and the protest of the music. She sings racial protest songs—not of hate, but of justice, freedom and pain."

The Vassar concert was Nina Simone's last in this country before leaving on her sixth European tour during which she performed in Dublin, Belfast, Edinburgh, Cardiff and London before appearing in Munich and Paris.

Dr. Philip W. Silver from Oberlin College lectured on "The Aesthetics of Ortega y Gasset and the Generation of 1927."
Atomic scientist Paul Zweifel, professor of physics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute lectured on "The Early History of Atomic Energy."  Professor Zweifel took part in a symposium on nuclear energy at Vassar in 1972, lecturing on "Are There Viable Alternatives to Nuclear Power?".
German bass Hans-Olaf Hudemann, accompanied by Huguette van Ackere, gave a lecture-performance on "The Development of German Lieder from the Time of Schubert."   A concert and oratorio singer, Hudemann was also a lecturer at the Musikhochschule in Heidelberg.
German bass Hans-Olaf Hudemann, accompanied by Huguette van Ackere, gave a lecture-performance on "The Development of German Lieder from the Time of Schubert."   A concert and oratorio singer, Hudemann was also a lecturer at the Musikhochschule in Heidelberg.
President Nixon authorized Operation Menu, the secret bombing of North Vietnamese supply lines and sanctuaries in Cambodia.
The New York State Board of Regents amended Vassar College's charter so that the college could matriculate men.
Dr. J. Frank McCormick, professor of botany at the University of North Carolina, gave the Helen Putnam Gates Conservation Lecture, entitled "Ecological Effects of Nuclear War."   McCormick worked on this question in several studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee.
Scottish landscape architect and pioneer in regional and ecological planning Ian L. McHarg, from the School of Fine Arts at the University of Pennsylvania, lectured on "Design with Nature."  McHarg called his book, Design with Nature (1969) “a personal testament to the power of sun, moon, and stars, the changing seasons, seedtime and harvest, clouds, rain and rivers, the oceans and the forests, the creatures and the herbs. They are with us now, co-tenants of the phenomenal universe.”
Mathematician Patricia McAuley '55 from Douglass College of Rutgers University delivered "Remarks on the Fixed Point Property."
British critic Frank Kermode, the Lord Northcliffe Professor of Modern English Literature at University College London, gave the Class of 1928 Fund Scholars' Lecture, entitled "The Survival of the Classics—The Example of 'King Lear.'"
Eminent art historian of the High Renaissance Sydney J. Freedberg, Harvard University, lectured on "The Art of Il Correggio."   Freedberg’s two-volume Paintings of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence was published in 1961, and Andrea del Sarto appeared in two volumes in 1963.
The New York Supreme Court dismissed the petition for an injunction against Vassar’s change in parietal regulations brought by the parent of a sophomore.    In his ruling, Justice W. Vincent Grady said, “Private colleges and universities are governed on the principle of academic self-regulation, free from judicial restraints….  Vassar College…has succumbed to the trend of coeducation and with the advent of males, new difficulties will be encountered by the college administration.  It is the privilege of a college, through its Student Government Association, to promulgate and enforce rules and regulations for the social conduct of students without judicial interference.”     John S. Brubacher, The Law and Higher Education: A Casebook, vol. 2
Philosopher David Keyt from Cornell University lectured on "Plato's Logical Realism and the Fallacy of Division."
Former US ambassador to Japan Edwin O. Reischauer, Harvard University, gave the Helen Kenyon Lecture, entitled "Japan in the Modern World."  Ambassador Reischauer spoke again at Vassar in 1974, lecturing on “"Japan and East Asia: Reflections on the Nixon-Kissinger Foreign Policy."
Sterling Brown, Howard University, lectured on "Images of Negro Life and Character in American Literature."   Professor Brown was a visiting professor at Vassar in 1945 and 1946.
Phycologist Robert T. Wilce, professor of biology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Lecture, entitled "High Arctic Algae; Their Systematic Role in the Ocean Ecosystem: A Cool Subject."   Professor Wilce was a founding member of the Northeast Algal Society.
Dr. Sidney Morgenbesser, John Dewey professor of philosophy at Columbia University, gave an open seminar on "The Nature of Scientific Theories." Dr. Morgenbesser lectured again at Vassar on May 8 on "The Unity of Natural and Social Sciences."
Philosopher of language Raimundo Lida, Harvard University, lectured on "Miguel de Cervantes."
American poet James Merrill read his work.  Merrill’s Nights and Days (1966) won the National Book Award for poetry in 1967, and his The Fire Screen appeared in 1969.
United State troops in Vietnam reached their highest number, 543,000.  33,641 Americans have been killed, exceeding the number dead in the Korean War.
The Student Afro-American Society gave a list of demands, entitled "A Search for Relevant Education," to the office of Dean of the Faculty Nell Eurich. The list called for the establishment of an Urban Center of Black Studies, a black-students' co-operative residence and cultural center, a black counselor empathetic with black students' circumstances and a budget for black-cultural event programming.
The class of 1971 elected David Galbraith '71 as the first male class president.
Henri Ghent, director of the Brooklyn Museum Community Gallery and member of the Black Artists Emergency Coalition, lead an informal discussion on "The Invisible Art, the Museums, and the Community."
The Vassar faculty approved the Student Afro-American Association's "A Search for Relevant Education" "in principal" and called for the college to begin its implementation immediately.   The notion of an Urban Center associated with the college was, the faculty said, “creative and intellectually sound.”
Author and activist Grace Paley read from her work.  Jailed several times for her protest activities, on July 18, 1969, the self-described “combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist” flew to Hanoi with six other anti-war activists and succeeded in gaining the release of three American prisoners of war.

Former New York City Commissioner of Health Dr. Leona Baumgartner, M.D., gave the Savel and Gertrude Folks Zimand Lecture, entitled "Society and the Revolution in Health Care."   Known for her energetic advocacy of both national and international health education, she was New York City’s first female health commissioner, serving from 1954 until 1962, when President Kennedy appointed her head of the Office of Technical Cooperation and Research for the Agency for International Development. The highest-ranking woman in the United States government, Dr. Baumgartner was responsible for persuading President Lyndon Johnson to include birth control in the planning for health programs in underdeveloped countries.

Gertrude Folks Zimand ’16 was a lifelong crusader against the abuses of child labor.  General secretary and trustee of the National Child Labor Committee and founder of its National Committee on the Employment of Youth, she was married to Savel Zimand, a Rumanian-born international journalist and author.

Dr. Sidney Morgenbesser lectured on "The Unity of Natural and Social Sciences." The John Dewey professor of philosophy at Columbia University, Dr. Morgenbesser gave an open seminar on "The Nature of Scientific Theories" at Vassar on April 24.
Czech Evangelical theologian Jan Milic Lochman, a visiting professor at Union Theological Seminary, lectured on "The Legacy of the Reformation."   Lochman was a member of the World Council of Churches executive committee. In 1970 he was appointed to a chair in systematic theology at Basel University in Switzerland, becoming eventually the university’s rector.
Forty-six American troops were killed and some 400 wounded in a protracted battle for “Hamburger Hill” near Hue, South Vietnam, after which, the American forces were ordered to withdraw, leaving it to the defeated North Vietnamese.  Reports of the debacle fueled anger and discouragement on the home front and in Congress.
Speaking to the nation on television, President Nixon presented a plan to end the war, by which the United States and North Vietnam would simultaneously leave South Vietnam.  The plan was summarily rejected by Hanoi.
Competing in a three-day Intercollegiate Music Festival at Kiel Auditorium in St. Louis, Vassar’s six-member singing group, the G-Stringers, shared first place in the vocal category with Don Smith, a musician from the University of Illinois.
 In a joint press conference with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu at Midway Island in the Pacific, President Nixon announced a “Vietnamization” of the war and the planned withdrawal of 25,000 American troops.
The first 800 American troops were withdrawn from Vietnam.  The phased withdrawal occurred in 14 stages, ending in November 1972.
Former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court and United States Chief Representative to the United Nations Arthur J. Goldberg spoke at Commencement, urging the Nixon administration to “de-escalate the war and escalate negotiations.”      The New York Times
President Nixon made his first and only trip to Vietnam, visiting troops and meeting with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu.
Arson was blamed for the destruction of a large carriage house and a barn on Matthew Vassar’s estate, Springside.

Milfred C. Fierce, who held that "White Studies have taken several hundred years of trial and error, revision, adjustment and improvement, and…still could use a thorough 'housecleaning,'" was named the first director of the Black Studies program. Under his leadership and through such innovations as the Urban Center in Poughkeepsie and the African Summer Study Trip he led in the summer of 1971, the program—ultimately the multidisciplinary African Studies Program—became a vital element in the Vassar curriculum.     The Miscellany News

Vassar admitted male transfer students into the second and third years.
The new curriculum, developed over the summer of 1968 as The Comprehensive Plan and modified and approved by the faculty during the 1968-69 academic year went into effect.  President Simpson described it in his report to the college constituencies in December 1970:
“In the pendulum swing between prescription and freedom which characterizes curricular history, this plan is as close to free choice as Vassar is ever likely to go.  It offers three paths to a degree instead of one, abolishes distribution requirements, encourages a pace to suit the individual, reduces the course load by a change in the counting system, offers wide opportunities for off-campus experience carrying credit towards the degree and seeks to enlarge options of faculty as well as students.”     Alan Simpson, The New Vassar, 1964-1970: Report of the President
Under New York State’s new Bundy Law—the first of its kind in the country— Vassar was one of 52 private, nonsectarian colleges eligible for grants to assist with college costs.  The grants were based on the number of degrees granted in the previous year, and Vassar’s funding for the 1969-70 academic year was $154,000.

Exchange of students among the men’s and women’s colleges remained strong for the 1969-70 academic year.  Students from Amherst, Bowdoin, Dartmouth, Haverford, Mount Holyoke, New York University, Trinity, the University of California and Williams attended Vassar, and Vassar students went to Dartmouth, Colgate, Haverford, Trinity, Wesleyan and Williams.

Two Williams students and one student from Amherst from among this group elected to stay at Vassar.

The college launched a $50 million comprehensive capital campaign, the largest in Vassar's history. President Simpson said that the aim of the project was to “enable Vassar to sustain its place of leadership among American liberal arts colleges.” The national chairman of the drive was trustee Mary St. John Villard ’34.

The specific goals of the campaign were the faculty—additional chairs, salary increases, an improved leave system, and new faculty positions to accommodate the transition to coeducation—scholarships and financial aid, the Library and scientific equipment. The campaign aimed to raise the money by 1972.

President Simpson received an anti-Vietnam War petition signed by over 150 faculty and over 1,000 students.
President Simpson called the first College Council, a body of representatives from the administration, faculty, and student body, to serve as an advisory council to the president and to meet five times a year, as well as during times of crisis.
Adele Davis, nutritionist and author, lectured on "Your Health Is in Your Hands." One of the first advocates of whole food and an early and stern critic of the prepared food industry, Davis praised the one and excoriated the other in such books as Let’s Cook Right (1947), Let’s Have Healthy Children (1951), Let’s Eat Right to Keep Fit (1954) and Let’s Get Well (1965).
Dr. Charles E. Shaffner, professor of civil engineering and vice president for administration at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, was appointed planning director for a proposed cooperative graduate center in engineering and technology at Vassar. The center was one of several new enterprises under discussion intended to enrich the academic resources in Vassar’s region and to extend them into developing fields.
Vassar’s president, Alan Simpson, was among 79 college and university presidents who—emphasizing that they spoke for themselves and not for their institutions—sent a statement to President Nixon appealing for a “stepped-up timetable for withdrawal from Viet Nam” and saying the war “stands as a denial of so much that is best in our society.”     The New York Times

Several hundred thousand students and faculty members on hundreds of campuses across the country observed a day of moratorium in honor of the nearly 40,000 American dead in Vietnam.  By request of many of the faculty and students, President Simpson authorized all interested faculty to close classes on this day to protest United States involvement in Vietnam.

“Nearly 200 miniskirted Vassar College coeds stepped through the gates of the United States Military Academy at West Point in midafternoon and handed daffodils and apples to dozens of startled cadets.  The girls walked to a sun-dappled lawn, sang “America the Beautiful” and then left, smiling as easily as when they arrived.”     The New York Times

Ada Louise Huxtable, the first architectural critic for The New York Times, gave the Helen Kenyon Lecture, "Is Architecture Obsolete?"

Professor R. B. Tate from Cornell University lectured on "The Writing and History of 15th and 16th Century Spain."

Oriental art historian Hugo Münsterberg from the State University of New York at New Paltz lectured on "Chinese Buddhist Sculpture."
C. L. Barber from the State University College at Buffalo gave the Class of 1928 Fund Lecture, on the "Use of Tragedy for Shakespeare." 

Protesting the erection of a new house for John Duggan, vice president for student affairs, on the hill east of Sunset Lake, over 90 students and five faculty members, working at night, filled in the recently dug foundation.  

A few days later, the Master Planning Committee suggested eleven other possible sites for the construction of the house, which was built in a less prominent place west of the golf course.

An exchange student from Dartmouth was arrested in his dormitory room and found to have over $2,000 worth of LSD and other drugs in his possession.  The student withdrew from the college.
The Student Afro-American Society (S.A.S.) presented President Alan Simpson with the "nine points," designed as “logical follow-ups which reiterated and expanded" the original proposals S.A.S made on April 30 in "A Search for Relevant Education”:
1. That Black Studies be expanded into a degree-granting department.
2. That an increased number of black professors be hired to accommodate this expanded program.
3. The immediate renovation of the entire Urban Center.
4. That we receive those funds which had been promised in addition to any extra funds needed for the expansion and continuance of the Black Studies program.
5. That the college buy a bus for transportation to and from the Urban Center,
6. That Vassar College hire a separate black counselor whose additional job was to place black students after they leave Vassar.
7. That a black housing facility be provided by 1971 which will eventually accommodate at least 200 students.
8. That an architect be contracted to design this facility by Monday, November 17th, 1969.
9. That black students be provided with agreeable black housing until the construction of this facility was completed.
Alison R. Bernstein ’69 was elected as the youngest member of the board of trustees in the history of the college.  President Simpson said of the PhD candidate in history at Columbia, “If anyone can mediate between hairy youth and hoary age, it is Alison Bernstein,” and a college spokesman, asked if any other trustees were in their 20s, replied “Oh, heavens no.  The next youngest trustee is Samuel C. Butler, a 1951 Harvard graduate.”     The New York Times

The annual meeting of the Seven College Conference was interrupted when 38 black students demonstrated in front of Alumnae House, protesting the administration's failure to act on their recent demands. At the meeting of representatives from Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Radcliffe, Smith, Vassar and Wellesley, President Simpson affirmed that, despite Vassar's coeducation decision, the college would remain a member of the group, which had met in one configuration or another since 1916.  "The conference [sometimes known as the Seven Sisters]," Simpson said, "represents a fund of experience and concern.  The times have changed, but we have not changed our basic commitment to education for women.  In varying degrees all the colleges are interested in co-education."

Earlier in October his suggestions that Vassar might drop out and that there might not be “a viable future for women’s education” provoked varied responses.  Wellesley’s President Ruth M. Adams observed, “Over the years, it has seemed to me that our group has begun to diverge in function and constitution, and that it might be advisable to enlarge the conference or listen sympathetically to the notion of dissolving it.”  David T. Truman, president of Mount Holyoke, took a slightly different position, saying “we would like to persuade the errant institution [Vassar] to stay with our association, or else we would add to the association, or if necessary do with a smaller number.”     The New York Times, The Miscellany News

Playing at home, Vassar men won against a football team of Sarah Lawrence men by a score of 18-6.

Dr. Chester M. Pierce, professor of education and psychiatry at the Medical School, Graduate School of Education and School of Public Health at Harvard University, gave the Savel and Gertrude Folks Zimand Lecture, entitled, "The Success of the School System: The Most Common Problem for Black Youth."   Founding president of the Black Psychiatrists of America, Pierce was also, as an undergraduate at Harvard, the first African-American to play in a college football game south of the Mason-Dixon Line at an all-white university, in a game against the University of Virginia on October 11, 1947.


Gertrude Folks Zimand ’16 was a lifelong crusader against the abuses of child labor.  General secretary and trustee of the National Child Labor Committee and founder of its National Committee on the Employment of Youth, she was married to Savel Zimand, a Rumanian-born international journalist and author.

Professor of History Stanley M. Elkins from Smith College gave the first C. Mildred Thompson Lecture of the academic year, "Slavery in the Americas: A Reappraisal."  Elkins’s provocative book, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959), argued that a comparative lack of pragmatism of American abolitionists led to a more violent, prolonged and debilitating struggle over slavery than had been the case in Britain and also that the practices of American slave-holders created and maintained a psychologically infantilizing and intellectually degrading slave culture.  As evidence of the latter claim, he contrasted the slave and minority cultures of America with those in Brazil. 

"Mr. Elkins discussed," said a writer in The Miscellany News, "the extraordinary rigidity and the interchangeability of the Noth and South American slave systems.  He noted the differences and similarities...and compared his findings with those of...another historian who has investigated slave systems extensively.  'The comparative approach in discussing problems of slavery will become more popular in the future,' said Mr. Elkins, 'because it is broader and uses ideology as a base.'"  In successive editions of his work—1963, 1969, 1976—Elkins reappraised its original assertions, trying to accommodate much of the original criticism.

The Thompson lectureship, given by an anonymous donor, honored American historian C. Mildred Thompson '03, who taught in the history department from 1910 until 1923, when she became Vassar's dean, a position she held until her retirement in 1948.  Dean Thompson died in 1975.

At 3:20 AM, 34 African-American students—all women and a majority of Vassar’s 59 black students—peacefully took over the central first floor of Main Building, protesting the administration's failure to respond to the Student Afro-American Society’s nine points.   A night watchman left quietly, a small group of African-American men from area colleges and the community guarded the front door and President Simpson spoke briefly with the students through an open window.  A switchboard operator stayed behind, showed one of the students how to operate the system and left.

Speaking to several hundred students later in the morning from the portico outside the Rose Parlor, Simpson said that a meeting including trustees, student leaders, member of the faculty and representatives of the group occupying Main would be convened.  While disapproving of the action, he said he understood “the spirit of deep frustration and high endeavor” motivating the students, adding “I cannot imagine any circumstance in which such conversations would be improved by the use of force or the threat of force.”

Conversations between the several parties began the following day.    The New York Times

President Simpson and trustee representative Orville Schell signed an agreement with Claudia Thomas '71, president of Students’ Afro-American Society (S.A.S.), in which the college agreed to fully implement points one through six of the students’ demands, as well as a modified version of the last three points dealing with an all-black dorm.  With brooms and mops from a utility closet, the students inside Main tidied up, removing the boards that had held the front doors shut.  At 9:30 pm, the demonstrating students re-opened Main Building.   Claudia Thomas recalled: “We left behind an arrangement of daisies on the switchboard operator’s desk, standing tall in a Coca-Cola bottle. For me, I left more than a clean, well-swept area, and a bottle with flowers in it. I left behind nineteen months of anger.”     Dr. Claudia Thomas, God Spare Life (2007)
Oberlin College art historian and curator Ellen Johnson gave the Class of 1928 Fund Lecture, "Oldenburg's Analogies, Metamorphoses, and Sources."   Originally the art librarian at her alma mater, her scholarship and keen appreciation of contemporary art and artists led to Johnson’s appointment to the art history faculty.  Starting in 1951, “Three Young Americans,” her biennial exhibitions at Oberlin’s Allen Art Museum, gave many contemporary artists, including Richard Diebenkorn, Frank Stella, Larry Poons, Bruce Nauman, Chuck Close, Jim Dine and Claes Oldenburg, some of their first academic recognition.  Johnson commissioned Oldenburg’s first site-specific sculpture, Three Way Plug, for the Oberlin Campus in 1970, and her book, Claes Oldenburg, appeared in 1971.
Carolyn Bird ‘35 lectured on "The New Feminine: What's Ahead for Little Girls." The feminist and women’s rights activist published The Invisible Scar, a socioeconomic memoir of the Great Depression, in 1966, and Born Female: The High Cost of Keeping Women Down, written with Sara Welles Briller, appeared in 1968.
An Indonesian dance company, The Budaya Troupe, performed the Hindu epic, The Ramayana, using various elements of Balinese, Javanese and Sundanese performing arts.
The first draft lottery since World War II was held in New York City.
German-born art historian Richard Krautheimer from New York University, visiting scholar at Vassar, lectured on "The Piazza of St. Peter's."   Professor Krautheimer, an émigré during the Nazi rise to power, taught at Vassar from 1937 before becoming the Jayne Wrightsman Professor of Fine Arts at NYU in 1952.  His Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art appeared in 1969.
Economist Gary Gappert, Washington director of the American Committee on Africa, lectured on "The Absence of Black America in U.S. Foreign Policy."
President Nixon ordered an additional 50,000 soldiers out of Vietnam.