Four hundred South Vietnamese soldier and four American advisors were killed in an attack by Viet Cong and local guerillas at Ap Bac, Vietnam.
At the second convocation of the school-year, President Blanding expressed disappointment with the students who cut class excessively and didn’t take their academic duties seriously, calling them “a menace to other students.” The New York Times
Helen and Karl Ulrich Schnabel gave a four-hand one-piano recital in Skinner Hall. An anonymous review in The Miscellany News, began with an admission. "It is very difficult to write a review in praise of perfection; one runs out of superlatives...." The recital, the reviewer said "came closer to perfection than any recital we have heard this year. The duo created a rare balance of teture and mood which remained unbroken throughout the program. They achieved a sheer transparency of sound, at once the most important and the most difficult requisite of four-hand piano music. It is incredibly difficult for two people to play a piece on one piano and be exactly together in timing, phrasing and expression, yet the Schnabels were beautifully together and made of every note a work of art."
The Schnabels' recital—"longer than the printed program"—began with Mozart's Andante and Five Variations for Piano duet, K.501, and Three Legends, in which "Dvorak's characteristic use of American folk melodies was evident. American themes on a quite different level were used in a Little Suite (1960)" by Swedish composer Laci Boldemann. "This piece was a surprise in that it had a real jazz beat and swinging syncopations." The program concluded with Mendelssohn's Allegro Brilliante, op 92, "a work of scintillating viruosity, and one which makes fantastic demands on the performers. Mr. and Mrs. Schnabel met these demands in a stunning and vital performance. But the audience would not let the performers go until they played two encores, by Brahms and Weber."
Karl Ulrich conducted a master class the following day for students of duet piano technique, at which he observed, "In four-hand playing...listening is at least as important as playing the notes." Although they each had distinguished careers as soloists, Karl Ulrich Schnabel, son of legendary pianist Artur Schnabel, often joined his wife, Helen, in one- and two-piano, four-hand concerts.
In response to a proposal by the American Association of University Professors, the trustees voted to make children of full-time faculty member who were admitted to accredited two or four year colleges eligible for college tuition subsidies.
Pianist Robert Guralnick performed in the second concert of the Philharmonic Chamber Music Series.
Baritone Albert Van Ackere, associate professor of music and director of the Glee Club, gave a recital of works by Bach, Fauré, Ravel and Schumann.
Freshmen in the drama department presented two one act plays, Thornton Wilder’s The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and J.M. Barrie’s Shall we Join the Ladies? Wilder’s play, along with three others by him, presented by the Yale Dramatic Association and Vassar’s Philaletheis in New Haven in 1931, were the first productions of his dramatic work. That event also marked the first co-productions between men’s and women’s collegiate drama associations.
Students, members of the music faculty and members of the administration presented a representative selection of Mozart’s work honoring his 207th birthday in a salon-like gathering in Main Parlor.
George Armitage Miller, co-founder of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard University, lectured on "A Psychologist Looks at Language."
Carl N. Degler, professor of history, spoke on “Political Parties and the Rise of the City, 1877-1934” as a part of the Vassar Scholars’ Lecture series.
Scottish-born theologian Dr. John Macquarrie, Professor of Systematic Theology at the Union Theological Seminary, spoke on “Heidegger’s Concept of Death” under the auspices of the Chaplain and the Department of Philosophy.
Peter Countryman, chairman of the Northern Students Movement spoke in the Faculty Parlor. Countryman, a junior at Yale, had left school in 1962 to form the organization, which worked to improve the educational climate for urban minority communities. College student volunteers were enlisted to hold classes with urban high school students to help prepare them for college. After his speech, over forty students pledged their participation.
English-born educational radio pioneer Professor Charles Siepmann, chairman of the department of communications at New York University, lectured on "Public Opinion and Propaganda." A former director of talks and director of planning for the BBC, Siepmann wrote Television and Education in the United States (1952) for UNESCO, and his TV and Our School Crisis (1958) received the Frank Stanton Award for Meritorious Research on the Media of Mass Communication.
German-born émigré economist Dr. Otto Nathan, lectured at Vassar on "The Economies of Disarmament." Fleeing Nazi Germany in 1933, Nathan settled briefly at Princeton, where a life-long friendship with physicist and fellow émigré Albert Einstein began. At Einstein’s death in 1955, he was named sole executor of the Einstein estate and joint trustee of Einstein’s literary property, which he trebled in size and which went, in 1982, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
Otto Nathan taught at Vassar from 1942 until 1945. One of his students, Adele Gabel Bergreen ’44 and her husband, Morris, became close friends of Nathan’s in the 1950s, and he eventually gave them his personal collection of letters, photographs, books and other items belonging to Einstein. These materials were given to the college by Mrs. Bergreen, and they constitute the Morris and Adele Bergreen Einstein Collection at Vassar College.
Dr. Kai Nielsen, associate professor of philosophy at New York University, spoke at Alumnae House on “Religious Perplexity and Faith.”
Josh White, internationally known folk and blues singer, gave a concert.
William Golding, English author of Lord of the Flies, spoke at Vassar under the auspices of the Vassar Student Lecture Series.
Robert Armstrong Pratt, professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania, spoke at Vassar on "Jankyn's Book of Wikked Wyves: Medieval Antifeminist Propaganda and Chaucer."
Dr. Emily Brown, emeritus professor of economics, gave a talk on “The Position of the Worker in the Economy of the USSR,” in which she spoke about working conditions in the USSR and the rapidly developing economy.
Dr. Arnold Lazarow, professor and chairman of the department of anatomy at the University of Minnesota Medical School in Minneapolis, spoke to Biology courses on “The Fourth Dimension of Anatomy” under the auspices of the physiology department.
The Paul Kuentz Paris Chamber Orchestra performed Vivaldi, Hayden, Boccherini, and Rossini at Skinner Recital Hall under the auspices of the Department of Music.
Faculty members of area elementary schools were guests of honor at the President’s House. Approximately 100 attended the tea, given in recognition of teachers who supervised in the student teaching program at Vassar.
The Vassar G-Stringers appeared at Carnegie Hall in New York City as part of a program called “The Collegiate Sound.” The group was considered one of the top ten collegiate singing groups of the 1962-63 season and primarily featured folk music with guitar accompaniment.
Eight Vassar students who planned to take part in the Northern Students Movement tutorial program met with representatives from teenage clubs to introduce them to the general ideas of the program. Peter Countryman, the founder of the movement, which recruited student volunteers from some 65 colleges and universities in New England, New York and Pennsylvania to help urban minority students prepare for college, spoke at Vassar in February.
The Department of Drama presented an open class exercise entitled “An Album of Period Comedy,” consisting of a series of scenes performed in costume from the time of Shakespeare, the Restoration, and the Victorian age. Veteran actor Dorothy Sands, a participant in the visiting artists program, directed the event.
President Blanding gave a second tea for 56 secondary school teachers from the area to honor their continued support of the Vassar teaching program.
David M. Schimmel, a member of the Peace Corps Washington staff, spoke and answered students’ questions about the corps. Afterwards, he reflected, “The thing that struck me was that so many Vassar girls are self-conscious about being liberal arts students. They tend to be unaware of all the skills they do possess, and talent they do have. Many of them have just the qualities we’re interested in, but never would think of the Peace Corps as a possibility for themselves. Its the qualities we’re interested in, not the majors.” The Miscellany News
The student and faculty curriculum committees held their annual joint meeting. They discussed independent study, graduate school requirements, and the possibility of extending the hours of the library.
In cooperation with the field work office, 28 students from ten departments and six faculty members from the art, history, and Italian departments traveled in Italy during a two week "Renaissance Vacation." Received by the United States ambassador, G. Frederick Reinhardt, at his home, Villa Taverna, in Rome, the group also visited Florence, Perugia, Assisi and Sienna. Members of the History, Art Italian faculties and student participates worked out the itinerary in cooperation with the Vassar Field Work Office. The students did not receive credit, as the tour was intended to extend and augment classroom experience.
Dr. A. L. Rowse, fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, lectured on "The Personality of Elizabeth I."
Forty-two 16th, 17th and 18th century Italian drawings from the collection of Mrs. Richard Krautheimer, were shown at the Vassar Art Gallery. The drawings on display, most of which had been acquired in the last six years, included works by Domenico Tintoretto, Guercino, Annibale Carracci and Girolamo Brusaferro.
Dr. Trude Krautheimer-Hess, the wife of the eminent art and architectural historian Richard Krautheimer and herself a noted scholar and collector of Italian Renaissance master drawings, spoke about the exhibit on April 18, in the Art Gallery. Her husband, who taught at Vassar between 1937 and 1952, was a visiting scholar in Vassar's art department during the 1962-63 academic year. The couple published Lorenzo Ghiberti, a study of the 15th century Florentine master, in 1956. The Miscellany News
Dr. Hermann von Baravalle, mathematician, educator and author, lectured on "Dynamic Beauty of Geometric Forms." A teacher of mathematics in Rudolf Steiner’s Stuttgart Waldorf School for many years, starting in 1938 von Baravalle was instrumental in the establishment of the Waldorf Schools in the United States.
Professor Leonard Machlis, chairman of the department of botany at the University of California at Berkeley, gave a the Helen Putnam Gates Lecture on "Fertilization Insurance in Plants."
Dr. Matthijs Jolles, professor of German literature at Cornell University, lectured on "Gott Natur und Mensch in Goethe’s Faust."
Writer on contemporary Russian literature and lecturer at Brooklyn College Vyacheslav K. Zavalishin, spoke on Solzhenitzyn’s book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. A former member of the New York Program Section of “Radio Liberation,” the Russian radio service sponsored by the Central Intelligence Agency, Zavalishin gave his talk in Russian in Chicago Hall, under the auspices of the Russian department.
Dr. Edward V. Sayre of the Brookhaven National Laboratory presented the first in a series of four lectures entitled “Clio in the Laboratory.” A pioneer in the use of neutron activation analysis to identify the source materials of archeological glass, Dr. Sayre entitled his lecture “Nuclear Technology in Archaeology.”
Alvin H. Hansen, emeritus professor of economics at Harvard University, former economic advisor to the State Department and current faculty member at the University of Michigan, gave the Martin H. Crego Lecture, “The Changing Structure of the American Economy,” in Blodgett Auditorium. The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego ’32, in honor of her father, sponsored an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department.
E-Tu-Zen-sun '44, Katherine Strelsky, of Vassar's Russian Department and Ruth Stone, assistant professor of English from 1953-1959, were among 17 appointed members of the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study for 1963-63.
Martin Luther King, Jr., was arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, AL. During his detention he wrote the famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail” declaring the moral duty of individuals to disobey unjust laws.
Dr. Robert Magidoff, chair of the New York University Slavic program, lectured at Vassar on Boris Pasternak and Doctor Zhivago.
Morris B. Abram, New York attorney, and first legal counsel to President Kennedy’s Peace Corps, spoke at Vassar on "Reapportionment: The New Civil Right." A Georgia-born lifelong opponent of segregation and civil rights activist, Abram served successive presidents in investigative and advisory positions.
British-born American poet Denise Levertov, author of The Jacob's Ladder (1961), gave a reading of her work.
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, under-secretary for special political affairs in the United Nations, spoke on "Inside Views of the United Nations," under the auspices of the Vassar College Student Lecture Series.
Professor Charles Griffin, chairman of the history department, attended a symposium at the University of Bordeaux, France, on “The History of Twentieth Century Latin America.” The only American scholar attending, Professor Griffin said that the gathering, including English, Swedish, French scholars as well as those from 12 Latin American countries, was “an example of international intellectual cooperation.” Griffin contributed a paper on the relative advantages of regional and national history for understanding contemporary Latin America to the conference, whose purpose, he said, was “to see the general trends of the period and to see how far one can talk about the area as a whole.” He reported “a great deal of frankness by the Latin Americans about their own governments. The tradition has been to keep away from recent history. This willingness to deal with recent events is a new departure.” The Miscellany News
The Seven College Conference announced that the seven women’s colleges had sent 4,489 letters of acceptance into the classes of 1967, from which they expected about 2,760 new students to enroll. 11,116 completed applications were received.
Under the Early Decision Plan, 644 of the candidates had been notified the previous fall that they would be accepted. The percentage of new students accepted under this plan—which both allowed colleges to avoid the confusion of multiple applications and spared applicants months of anxiety about their futures—rose from 18 percent in 1961 to 23.3 percent in 1963.
Vassar’s admission director, Jean L. Harry ’33, who released the 1963-64 figures for the conference, noted that a major factor in determining the size of the freshmen classes was the number of upperclassmen who planned to return. “All seven of the colleges,” she said, “have noted with gratification that there has been a steady increase in the number of young women who complete four years of study and earn degrees.”
The accepted classes continued to draw from broader applicant bases. Barbara Clough, admission director at Wellesley, noted “the increasing number of applications from students in schools not previously known to Wellesley. In 1963, as in 1962, we had candidates from more than 230 schools new to us.” Jane Sehmann, director at Smith, observed that the college had seen in the last five years and increase of 200 in the public schools represented in the applications. The New York Times
Hugo Buchthal, professor of Byzantine art at the University of London’s Warburg Institute, lectured on "The Miniatures of the Vatican Virgil Manuscripts." The Vatican Virgil (Vergillus Vaticanus), an early 5th century illustrated manuscript containing fragments of Virgil’s Aeneid and Georgics, is the oldest surviving source of Virgilian texts.
K. Shantha Rama Rao, Indian educator, social worker, and writer, gave the Martin H. Crego Lecture on "Education and Caste in India." The Crego lecture, part of the Crego Endowment, established in 1956 by Jean Crego ’32, in honor of her father, sponsored an annual lecture in the general field of economics, under the auspices of the economics department.
Mid-Hudson Airlines treated representatives of The Miscellany News to a 20-minute ride in a four-seat Cessna airplane. Pilot Steve Richardson circled the Cessna over the campus. “From a vantage point of 1,600 feet,” wrote a reporter, “Vassar College looks like a group of toy buildings in a child’s model train set.”
The Dutchess County Airport offered regularly schedule flights, flying lessons at $15 an hour, charter service and limousine service.
An all-senior cast presented the Senior Class Play, “My Hero!” in Skinner Hall as a benefit performance for the construction of a recreational center in Guinea, a project inspired by Operations Crossroads Africa. In the audience for the performance were Mme. Telli Diallo, wife of the Guinean ambassador to the United States, Mme. and M. Achar Maroff, members of the Guinean delegation of the Untied Nations and the Rev. James H. Robinson, founder, chairman and director of Operation Crossroads Africa, and former speaker at Vassar. The play was “a takeoff on nineteenth century melodrama.”
The seniors presented the play again, in aid of Crossroads Africa, in Skinner Hall on May 31. The Miscellany News
The Vassar College Choir and the Princeton University Chapel Choir, under the direction of Donald Pearson, gave a concert of sacred choral music.
Leon Edel, professor of English at New York University, lectured on "Some Aspects of Henry James." Edel’s five-volume biography of the Amercan novelist, Henry James: A Biography (1955-72), earned a National Book Award in 1962 and a Pulitzer Prize in 1963.
Dr. Salvador E. Luria, microbiologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, gave a three-day seminar at Marist, Vassar, and Dutchess Community College. On April 29th, he spoke at Marist on "Macromolecular Aspects of Biology." On April 30th, at Vassar, the topic of his lecture was "Genes and Viruses." On May 1st he lectured at Dutchess Community College on "Viruses and Abnormal Cell Functions."
The Vassar College Orchestra, conducted by Boris Koutzen, assisted by Claude Monteux, gave a concert in honor of Vassar's retiring faculty.
Betty Friedan, feminist and author of The Feminine Mystique (1963), spoke on "The Feminine Mystique." Friedan co-founded the National Organization for Women in 1966 and was its first president.
The Vassar Experimental Theater performed Thornton Wilder's The Skin of Our Teeth.
The Vassar College Glee Club, directed by Albert Van Ackere, and the William's Glee Club, directed by Robert Barrow, gave a concert at Vassar College.
"The Umbra Poets," a group of young black poets, presented selections of their writing in the Students’ Building. The poetry dealt with "aspects of social and racial reality," and was sponsored by the OPA. The group took its name from Umbra, a literary magazine that first appeared the preceeding winter presenting "the experience of being a negro, especially in America" and hoping to arouse "that quality of human awareness often termed ‘social consciousness’. " The Miscellany News
At Commencement exercises for the Class of 1963, of which his daughter Anne was a member, Robert F. Goheen, the president of Princeton University, urged the 324 graduates to recognize that being liberally educated allowed and obliged them to take a long view of history and to “orient to the highest values of our culture and cultivate an attitude of relative detachment.”
John Wilkie, chairman of the board of trustees, announced that gifts to the college for the year totaled over $2 million. The New York Times
The college announced that British-born historian Alan Simpson would succeed Sarah Gibson Blanding on July 1, 1964, when she retired from the presidency of Vassar. John Wilkie, chairman of the board of trustees, said the board endorsed Mr. Simpson‘s nomination by a committee of five trustees and five faculty members “enthusiastically and unanimously” at its meeting on June 19. Simpson, Mr. Wilkie said, was elected “with complete confidence in his profound concern with and dedication to the further enhancement of Vassar’s distinction in the world of education.” President Blanding greeted her successor’s selection, noting that he “has proved himself to be one of the outstanding educators in the country and ideally qualified to head a great college.”
Educated at Oxford, Simpson studied at Harvard as a Commonwealth Fellow from 1935 to 1937. After eight years as senior lecturer in modern British history at the University of Saint Andrews in Scotland, he joined the history faculty of the University of Chicago in 1946. Mr. Simpson served as the dean of the Undergraduate College of the University of Chicago from 1946 until 1964.
In a statement, Alan Simpson said, “It is a great honor to be invited to be president of Vassar College. I have the warmest admiration for its trustees, faculty, students and alumnae. By combining a firm grasp of established standards of excellence with a vigorous readiness for constructive change, its future will be as distinguished as its past.” The New York Times
The University Russian Club, a group formed by Yale, Harvard, Columbia and Vassar students to further understanding of Soviet life, organized a trip to the Soviet Union. The participants met with Soviet students, teachers and workers and visited Russian homes, factories, museums, churches, monasteries and a collective farm.
The annual chemistry program for fifteen advanced high school students, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, was given at Vassar.
An intensive six-week Russian program sponsored by the State Education Department began on this date.
The International Summer School of the Nursery School Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was held at Vassar, the first meeting in the United States in the school’s 8-year history. The keynote address on "Freedom and Education" was given R. W. Ferguson, chairman of the nursery school association. A series of seminars were held on early childhood education, focusing on themes such as "Rearing children of Good Will" and "Teaching the Creative Arts." In addition to the seminars, the summer school included general lectures, panel discussions and educational films and plays.
Former Republican Senator from Massachusetts, United States Ambassador to the United Nations and—in 1960—unsuccessful vice presidential candidate Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., took up his new post as United States Ambassador to South Vietnam.
The Group, Mary McCarthy’s novel about the lives of eight members of the Class of 1933, appeared from Harcourt, Brace & World. A few weeks earlier, in anticipation of the book’s release, The New York Times had observed, “One of the girls in the novel, unlike the others, comes from the Far West. Miss McCarthy was born in Seattle. Further identification of the characters must wait on publication of the book.”
Some 200,000 people joined the “March on Washington,” gathering at the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. Martin Luther King’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech.
President Blanding joined presidents and deans from 34 major colleges and universities in 21 states in urging the Senate to ratify a nuclear test ban treaty. On September 24, the Senate ratified the partial test ban treaty by a vote of 80 to 19, and President Kennedy signed the treaty on October 7.
A bombing of a Baptist church in Birmingham, AL, killed four young African American girls attending Sunday school. Four more black youths died in the ensuing rioting.
Dr. Mary Calderone '25, director of Planned Parenthood Federation of America lectured on "Introduction to Sex Patterns." "She urged the students to not 'rush into womanhood, but let nature take it's course,'" The Miscellany News reported. "Girls,” Dr. Calderone advised, “keep your affections wrapped in cotton until Mr. Right comes along."
A symposium conducted by the symposium committee of the 175th anniversary of New York State’s ratification of the Federal Constitution in Poughkeepsie was held at Vassar.
The Student Madrigal Choir of Muenster, West Germany, under the direction of Frau Herma Kramm, performed in the Vassar College Chapel.
Daniel S. Lehrman, professor of psychology at Rutgers University, lectured on "Psychosomatic Influences in the Reproduction Cycles of Animals."
Vassar students began what The New York Times called their "own version of the Peace Corps," an after-school tutoring program called "Horizons Unlimited." Coordinated by Patricia Blumenthal ’64 and Joan Leven ’66, the program sent 150 student volunteers four days a week to classrooms in four participating elementary schools for hour-long help sessions intended to provide “educational and cultural enrichment” to students identified by their teachers as having "potential for greater achievement."
"It does reduce," Blumenthal admitted, "the amount of time available for keeping up with our own studies. But, in a world where so much needs to be done, an experiment like 'Horizons Unlimited' also gives us a purpose and an opportunity for fulfillment." The New York Times
Countess Alexandra Lvovna Tolstoy, youngest daughter of Leo Tolstoy, lectured on "The Life and Philosophy of Tolstoy." Born in 1884, she was her father’s secretary at the end of his life. Imprisoned briefly after the 1917 revolution by the Bolsheviks, she came to the United States in 1929 and, in 1939, founded the Tolstoy Foundation.
An informational program on civil rights was held in the Aula, sponsored by the Vassar Committee for Civil Rights. Speakers at the meeting included Lee Webb, national secretary for Students for a Democratic Society; Dennis Schecter, northern student vice president of the National Student Association; Arthur Gorson, chairman of Campus Americans for Democratic Action and Jim Monson, field secretary for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. 26 local colleges and high schools were invited to send representatives to this event.
The Vassar Experimental Theater presented Ingmar Bergman's Smiles of a Summer's Night.
A day after a successful coup d’état, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Nhu Dinh Diem were murdered. North Vietnamese president Ho Chi Minh was reported to have said, "I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid."
Several student members of the Vassar Committee for Civil Rights went to the polls on election day and collected contributions that were sent to the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee to aid voter registration in the South.
The college and the New York State Council on the Arts sponsored a concert of Elizabethan music by the New York Pro Musica in honor of William Shakespeare's 400th birthday.
The first chief of the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress, Lewis Hanke, professor of history at Columbia University, lectured at Vassar on "The Life and Works of Bartolomé de Las Casas." A pioneer in Latin American history, Hanke advanced the notion that Bartolomé, the 16th century Bishop of Chiapas, led a reform movement to resist the abuse of indigenous people by Spanish colonists.
Dr. Kenneth B. Clark, professor of psychology at the College of the City of New York, gave the Helen Gates Putnam Lecture on "Personality and Prejudice." The first African American president of the American Psychological Association, Clark, and his wife founded Harlem Your Opportunities Unlimited in 1962.
President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
Vassar canceled classes. President Lyndon B. Johnson declared this day a National Day of Mourning for President John F. Kennedy and his family.
Evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky, professor of genetics at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City spoke at Vassar on "Genetics and Equality."
Vassar College, along with Dutchess Community College, Marist College and the State University College at New Paltz, sponsored a New Civil Rights Symposium on "The Negro Revolt: Contemporary Attitudes and Pressures." Several issues were discussed at the symposium including "The Church in the civil rights movement; the possibility of achieving complete ‘civil rights’ under our present economic and political system and the influence of the present racial crisis in America's international image." The Miscellany News
Christine Mitchell Havelock, associate professor of art, gave a Vassar Scholar's Lecture on "The Goddess Athena as Emblem of Athens."
The Vassar College Glee Club, directed by Albert van Ackere, performed in a joint concert with the Union College Glee Club, directed by Hugh Allen Wilson.
A bongo group led by Nigerian-born G. Godwin Oywole from the State University of New Paltz, gave a concert.
Members of the German Club presented a German Medieval nativity play, "Ein Deutsches Weihnachtsspiel," in the Vassar College Chapel.
16,300 American military advisors were present in South Vietnam, and the year’s cost for their support was $500 million.