Professor Anne Barstow of SUNY College at Old Westbury and Professor Naomi Goldenberg of the University of Ottawa spoke on “Witchcraft, Then and Now. A Quest for Women’s Spirituality.”  In her Changing of the Gods: Feminism & the End of Traditional Religions (1979), a cornerstone of the “Goddess movement,” Professor Goldenberg observed, “In addition to elevating the image of woman in religious symbology, witchcraft also improves the idea of woman in secular culture.  Because each witch is taught to see herself as the Goddess in all activities, she makes no separation between her religious ideals and her worldly behavior.”

Professor Barstow and her husband, theologian Tom Driver from the Union Theological Seminary, lectured at Vassar on “Sexism, Its Religious Origins and What to Do About It” in 1972.  Her Married Priests and the Reforming Papacy: The Eleventh-Century Debates was published in 1982, and Joan of Arc: Heretic, Mystic, Shaman appeared in 1986.